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      Applications and Challenges of GRACE and GRACE Follow-On Satellite Gravimetry

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          Abstract

          Time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO) missions have opened up a new avenue of opportunities for studying large-scale mass redistribution and transport in the Earth system. Over the past 19 years, GRACE/GRACE-FO time-variable gravity measurements have been widely used to study mass variations in different components of the Earth system, including the hydrosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and solid Earth, and significantly improved our understanding of long-term variability of the climate system. We carry out a comprehensive review of GRACE/GRACE-FO satellite gravimetry, time-variable gravity fields, data processing methods, and major applications in several different fields, including terrestrial water storage change, global ocean mass variation, ice sheets and glaciers mass balance, and deformation of the solid Earth. We discuss in detail several major challenges we need to face when using GRACE/GRACE-FO time-variable gravity measurements to study mass changes, and how we should address them. We also discuss the potential of satellite gravimetry in detecting gravitational changes that are believed to originate from the deep Earth. The extended record of GRACE/GRACE-FO gravity series, with expected continuous improvements in the coming years, will lead to a broader range of applications and improve our understanding of both climate change and the Earth system.

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          A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance.

          We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods--especially in Greenland and West Antarctica--and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year(-1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year(-1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.
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            Time variability of the Earth's gravity field: Hydrological and oceanic effects and their possible detection using GRACE

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                chen@csr.utexas.edu
                Journal
                Surv Geophys
                Surv Geophys
                Surveys in Geophysics
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0169-3298
                1573-0956
                9 January 2022
                9 January 2022
                2022
                : 43
                : 1
                : 305-345
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.89336.37, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9924, Center for Space Research, , University of Texas at Austin, ; Austin, TX 78759 USA
                [2 ]Legos/CNES, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
                [3 ]GRID grid.23731.34, ISNI 0000 0000 9195 2461, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, ; 14473 Potsdam, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.503286.a, LOPS, University of Brest/IFREMER/IRD/CNRS, ; 29280 Brest, France
                [5 ]GRID grid.508487.6, ISNI 0000 0004 7885 7602, Université de Paris, IPGP/CNRS/IGN, ; 75005 Paris, France
                [6 ]GRID grid.464054.7, Magellium, ; 31520 Ramonville Saint-Agne, France
                [7 ]GRID grid.450946.a, ISNI 0000 0001 1089 2856, International Space Science Institute, ; Hallerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5405-8441
                Article
                9685
                10.1007/s10712-021-09685-x
                9050784
                35535258
                d4534ed4-5b43-44ab-9129-0cf3c6e313ca
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 12 March 2021
                : 3 December 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000104, National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
                Award ID: NNX17AG96G
                Award ID: 80NSSC20K0820
                Award Recipient :
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                © Springer Nature B.V. 2022

                grace,grace-fo,satellite gravimetry,gravity,mass change,application,challenge

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