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      Portrayals of autism and social awareness: a scoping review

      e-literature-review
      Rosa Fontes , Margarita Pino-Juste
      Advances in Autism
      Emerald Publishing
      Autism, Stereotypes, Portrayals of autism, Social awareness

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose

          The purpose of this paper is to look at recent trends in scientific literature on the portrayal of autism in published and broadcast media and social awareness of the subject.

          Design/methodology/approach

          A bibliometric analysis of content of such publications was performed.

          Findings

          Results show that portrayals of autism from books, newspapers, news broadcasts, films and TV series are being scrutinized. Research focuses on the social categories of resulting stereotypes, the quality of such depictions, the benefits and downsides, stigmatization of individuals (with autism) and how society responds to these portrayals.

          Originality/value

          It is important to understand if media portrayals of autism are creating a realistic and constructive awareness of autism in society.

          Related collections

          Most cited references45

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          • Abstract: found
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          Is Open Access

          Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach

          Background Scoping reviews are a relatively new approach to evidence synthesis and currently there exists little guidance regarding the decision to choose between a systematic review or scoping review approach when synthesising evidence. The purpose of this article is to clearly describe the differences in indications between scoping reviews and systematic reviews and to provide guidance for when a scoping review is (and is not) appropriate. Results Researchers may conduct scoping reviews instead of systematic reviews where the purpose of the review is to identify knowledge gaps, scope a body of literature, clarify concepts or to investigate research conduct. While useful in their own right, scoping reviews may also be helpful precursors to systematic reviews and can be used to confirm the relevance of inclusion criteria and potential questions. Conclusions Scoping reviews are a useful tool in the ever increasing arsenal of evidence synthesis approaches. Although conducted for different purposes compared to systematic reviews, scoping reviews still require rigorous and transparent methods in their conduct to ensure that the results are trustworthy. Our hope is that with clear guidance available regarding whether to conduct a scoping review or a systematic review, there will be less scoping reviews being performed for inappropriate indications better served by a systematic review, and vice-versa.
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            Is Open Access

            Neurotypical Peers are Less Willing to Interact with Those with Autism based on Thin Slice Judgments

            Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including those who otherwise require less support, face severe difficulties in everyday social interactions. Research in this area has primarily focused on identifying the cognitive and neurological differences that contribute to these social impairments, but social interaction by definition involves more than one person and social difficulties may arise not just from people with ASD themselves, but also from the perceptions, judgments, and social decisions made by those around them. Here, across three studies, we find that first impressions of individuals with ASD made from thin slices of real-world social behavior by typically-developing observers are not only far less favorable across a range of trait judgments compared to controls, but also are associated with reduced intentions to pursue social interaction. These patterns are remarkably robust, occur within seconds, do not change with increased exposure, and persist across both child and adult age groups. However, these biases disappear when impressions are based on conversational content lacking audio-visual cues, suggesting that style, not substance, drives negative impressions of ASD. Collectively, these findings advocate for a broader perspective of social difficulties in ASD that considers both the individual’s impairments and the biases of potential social partners.
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              Changing College Students' Conceptions of Autism: An Online Training to Increase Knowledge and Decrease Stigma.

              College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma towards autism than men. Participation in the training was associated with decreased stigma and increased knowledge about autism. Although participants exhibited relatively high baseline knowledge of autism, misconceptions were common, particularly in open-ended responses. Participants commonly confused autism with other disorders, such as learning disabilities. This study suggests that online training may be a cost-effective way to increase college students' understanding and acceptance of their peers with autism.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                AIA
                10.1108/AIA
                Advances in Autism
                AIA
                Emerald Publishing
                2056-3868
                2056-3868
                04 August 2021
                02 June 2022
                : 8
                : 3
                : 196-206
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Didactics, School Planning and Research Methods, Faculty of Education Sciences and Sports, University of Vigo , Pontevedra, Spain
                Author notes
                Rosa Fontes can be contacted at: rosaguifontes@hotmail.com
                Article
                668875 AIA-02-2021-0014.pdf AIA-02-2021-0014
                10.1108/AIA-02-2021-0014
                d46adfdb-6f60-4cc3-9e49-7ff8ce40e39c
                © Emerald Publishing Limited
                History
                : 23 February 2021
                : 13 April 2021
                : 05 June 2021
                : 12 June 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 45, Pages: 1, Words: 5575
                Categories
                e-literature-review, Literature review
                cat-HSC, Health & social care
                , Learning & intellectual disabilities
                Custom metadata
                M
                Web-ready article package
                Yes
                Yes
                JOURNAL
                included

                Health & Social care
                Social awareness,Portrayals of autism,Autism,Stereotypes
                Health & Social care
                Social awareness, Portrayals of autism, Autism, Stereotypes

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