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      The Efficacy of N-Butylphthalide and Dexamethasone Combined with Hyperbaric Oxygen on Delayed Encephalopathy After Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

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          Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common health problem among people in many countries, primarily because of its severe clinical effects and high toxicological morbidity and mortality. Acute brain injury and delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) are the most common neurological complications. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of N-butylphthalide (NBP) and dexamethasone (DXM) combined with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in patients with DEACMP.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 171 patients with DEACMP were recruited and assigned to the combined therapy group (receiving NBP and DXM 5 mg/day plus HBO therapy) or the control group (HBO therapy as monotherapy). Conventional treatments were provided for all patients. The cognition and movement changes in patients were evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale and the Barthel index of activities of daily living (ADL) before and after the treatment at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year, respectively.


          At 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after the treatment, the MMSE, MoCA and ADL scores were all significantly higher in the combined therapy group than those in the control group. There were no significant alterations in blood glucose, blood lipids, or liver and kidney function during the whole treatment session. Some patients experienced loss of appetite, mild headache and minor skin irritations. However, these patients recovered by themselves and needed no additional medications or special treatment.


          These results indicated that NBP and DXM combined with HBO for the treatment of DEACMP can significantly improve the cognitive and motor functions of patients and is very safe.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

          Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment plus two sessions of exposure to normobaric room air. Oxygen treatments were administered from a high-flow reservoir through a face mask that prevented rebreathing or by endotracheal tube. Neuropsychological tests were administered immediately after chamber sessions 1 and 3, and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after enrollment. The primary outcome was cognitive sequelae six weeks after carbon monoxide poisoning. The trial was stopped after the third of four scheduled interim analyses, at which point there were 76 patients in each group. Cognitive sequelae at six weeks were less frequent in the hyperbaric-oxygen group (19 of 76 [25.0 percent]) than in the normobaric-oxygen group (35 of 76 [46.1 percent], P=0.007), even after adjustment for cerebellar dysfunction and for stratification variables (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.92]; P=0.03). The presence of cerebellar dysfunction before treatment was associated with the occurrence of cognitive sequelae (odds ratio, 5.71 [95 percent confidence interval, 1.69 to 19.31]; P=0.005) and was more frequent in the normobaric-oxygen group (15 percent vs. 4 percent, P=0.03). Cognitive sequelae were less frequent in the hyperbaric-oxygen group at 12 months, according to the intention-to-treat analysis (P=0.04). Three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments within a 24-hour period appeared to reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae 6 weeks and 12 months after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective

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              Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning.

              Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in modern society, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the United States annually. Over the past two decades, sufficient information has been published about carbon monoxide poisoning in the medical literature to draw firm conclusions about many aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of the syndrome, along with evidence-based recommendations for optimal clinical practice. This article provides clinical practice guidance to the pulmonary and critical care community regarding the diagnosis, management, and prevention of acute CO poisoning. The article represents the consensus opinion of four recognized content experts in the field. Supporting data were drawn from the published, peer-reviewed literature on CO poisoning, placing emphasis on selecting studies that most closely mirror clinical practice.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                02 April 2020
                : 14
                : 1333-1339
                [1 ]Intensive Care Unit, Heze Municipal Hospital , Heze City, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Emergency Department, Heze Municipal Hospital , Heze City, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy, Heze Municipal Hospital , Heze City, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Neurology, Heze Municipal Hospital , Heze City, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yankun Chen Department of Neurology, Heze Municipal Hospital , 2888 Caozhou Road, Heze City274000, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Email kundan@126.com
                © 2020 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 51, Pages: 7
                Original Research


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