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      Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review

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          Accumulators and excluders ‐strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals

          A Baker (2008)
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            Phytoremediation.

            Phytoremediation, the use of plants and their associated microbes for environmental cleanup, has gained acceptance in the past 10 years as a cost-effective, noninvasive alternative or complementary technology for engineering-based remediation methods. Plants can be used for pollutant stabilization, extraction, degradation, or volatilization. These different phytoremediation technologies are reviewed here, including their applicability for various organic and inorganic pollutants, and most suitable plant species. To further enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation, there is a need for better knowledge of the processes that affect pollutant availability, rhizosphere processes, pollutant uptake, translocation, chelation, degradation, and volatilization. For each of these processes I review what is known so far for inorganic and organic pollutants, the remaining gaps in our knowledge, and the practical implications for designing phytoremediation strategies. Transgenic approaches to enhance these processes are also reviewed and discussed.
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              Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

              A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Agronomy for Sustainable Development
                Agron. Sustain. Dev.
                Springer Nature
                1774-0746
                1773-0155
                January 2014
                May 2013
                : 34
                : 1
                : 21-43
                Article
                10.1007/s13593-013-0156-7
                d48f0a66-2be1-4a72-a434-ee34a0e47621
                © 2014
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13593-013-0156-7

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