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      Managing an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy team: challenges and solutions

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          Abstract

          Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs should strive to deliver safe, cost effective, and high quality care. One of the keys to developing and sustaining a high quality OPAT program is to understand the common challenges or barriers to OPAT delivery. We review the most common challenges to starting and managing an OPAT program and give practical advice on addressing these issues.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Antibiotic stewardship and early discharge from hospital: impact of a structured approach to antimicrobial management.

          To assess the impact of an infection team review of patients receiving antibiotics in six hospitals across the UK and to establish the suitability of these patients for continued care in the community. An evaluation audit tool was used to assess all patients on antibiotic treatment on acute wards on a given day. Clinical and antibiotic use data were collected by an infection team (doctor, nurse and antibiotic pharmacist). Assessments were made of the requirement for continuing antibiotic treatment, route and duration [including intravenous (iv)/oral switch] and of the suitability of the patients for discharge from hospital and their requirement for community support. Of 1356 patients reviewed, 429 (32%) were on systemic antibiotics, comprising 165 (38%) on iv ± oral antibiotics and 264 (62%) on oral antibiotics alone. Ninety-nine (23%) patients (including 26 on iv antibiotics) had their antibiotics stopped immediately on clinical grounds. The other 330 (77%) patients (including 139 on iv antibiotics) needed to continue antibiotics, although 47 (34%) could be switched to oral. Eighty-nine (21%) patients were considered eligible for discharge, comprising 10 who would have required outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT), 55 who were suitable for oral outpatient treatment and 24 who had their antibiotics stopped. Infection team review had a significant impact on antimicrobial use, facilitating iv to oral switch and a reduction in the volume of antibiotic use, possibly reducing the risk of healthcare-associated complications and infections. It identified many patients who could potentially have been managed in the community with appropriate resources, saving 481 bed-days. The health economics are reported in a companion paper.
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            Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy: principles and practice.

             R Seaton,  D A Barr (2013)
            Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) refers to the administration of a parenteral antimicrobial in a non inpatient or ambulatory setting with the explicit aim of facilitating admission avoidance or early discharge. Whilst OPAT has predominantly been the domain of the infection specialist, the internal medicine specialist has a key role in service development and delivery as a component of broader ambulatory care initiatives such as "hospital at home". Main drivers for OPAT are patient welfare, reduction of risk of health care associated infection and cost-effective use of hospital resources. The safe practice of OPAT is dependent on a team approach with careful patient selection and antimicrobial management with programmed and adaptable clinical monitoring and assessment of outcome. Gram-positive infections, including cellulitis, bone and joint infection, bacteraemia and endocarditis are key infections potentially amenable to OPAT whilst resistant Gram-negative infections are of increasing importance. Ceftriaxone, teicoplanin, daptomycin and ertapenem lend themselves well to OPAT due to daily (or less frequent) bolus administration, although any antimicrobial may be administered if the patient is trained to administer and/or an appropriate infusion device is employed. Clinical experience from NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde is presented to illustrate the key principles of OPAT as practised in the UK. Increasingly complex patients with multiple medical needs, the relative scarcity of inpatient resources and the broader challenge of ambulatory care and "hospital at home" will ensure the internal medicine specialist will have a key role in the future development of OPAT.
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              Are we ready for an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy bundle? A critical appraisal of the evidence.

              Healthcare "bundles" have been developed to help providers improve the reliability and delivery of essential healthcare processes. Bundles have been shown to be effective in reducing healthcare-associated infection rates and are increasingly used to ensure the quality of patient care. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is now standard medical practice in the treatment of a wide variety of infections. We review 6 components that we believe comprise an OPAT bundle and the evidence supporting each: patient selection, infectious disease consultation, patient/caregiver education, discharge planning, outpatient monitoring/tracking, and OPAT program review. To ensure that patients are receiving optimal care, further program development and outcomes research should target these bundle components to bring the evidence base up to date with current medical practices.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2014
                18 June 2014
                : 10
                : 459-465
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of the Pacific Thomas J Long School of Pharmacy, Stockton, CA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Services, University of California, Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USA
                [3 ]Division of Infectious Diseases, Section of Hospital Medicine, University of California, Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hien H Nguyen, UC Davis Health System, Patient Support Services Building Suite 500, 4150 V Street, Sacramento, CA, USA 95817, Email hien.nguyen@ 123456ucdmc.ucdavis.edu
                Article
                tcrm-10-459
                10.2147/TCRM.S48906
                4069209
                © 2014 Halilovic et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                program management, safety, quality, opat

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