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      Analysis of Documentation Speed Using Web-Based Medical Speech Recognition Technology: Randomized Controlled Trial

      , Dr med , 1 , , Dr med 2 , , Dr med 3 , , Dr med 1


      Journal of Medical Internet Research

      JMIR Publications Inc.

      electronic health record, automatic speech recognition, randomized controlled trial

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          Clinical documentation has undergone a change due to the usage of electronic health records. The core element is to capture clinical findings and document therapy electronically. Health care personnel spend a significant portion of their time on the computer. Alternatives to self-typing, such as speech recognition, are currently believed to increase documentation efficiency and quality, as well as satisfaction of health professionals while accomplishing clinical documentation, but few studies in this area have been published to date.


          This study describes the effects of using a Web-based medical speech recognition system for clinical documentation in a university hospital on (1) documentation speed, (2) document length, and (3) physician satisfaction.


          Reports of 28 physicians were randomized to be created with (intervention) or without (control) the assistance of a Web-based system of medical automatic speech recognition (ASR) in the German language. The documentation was entered into a browser’s text area and the time to complete the documentation including all necessary corrections, correction effort, number of characters, and mood of participant were stored in a database. The underlying time comprised text entering, text correction, and finalization of the documentation event. Participants self-assessed their moods on a scale of 1-3 (1=good, 2=moderate, 3=bad). Statistical analysis was done using permutation tests.


          The number of clinical reports eligible for further analysis stood at 1455. Out of 1455 reports, 718 (49.35%) were assisted by ASR and 737 (50.65%) were not assisted by ASR. Average documentation speed without ASR was 173 (SD 101) characters per minute, while it was 217 (SD 120) characters per minute using ASR. The overall increase in documentation speed through Web-based ASR assistance was 26% ( P=.04). Participants documented an average of 356 (SD 388) characters per report when not assisted by ASR and 649 (SD 561) characters per report when assisted by ASR. Participants' average mood rating was 1.3 (SD 0.6) using ASR assistance compared to 1.6 (SD 0.7) without ASR assistance ( P<.001).


          We conclude that medical documentation with the assistance of Web-based speech recognition leads to an increase in documentation speed, document length, and participant mood when compared to self-typing. Speech recognition is a meaningful and effective tool for the clinical documentation process.

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          CONSORT-EHEALTH: Improving and Standardizing Evaluation Reports of Web-based and Mobile Health Interventions

          Background Web-based and mobile health interventions (also called “Internet interventions” or "eHealth/mHealth interventions") are tools or treatments, typically behaviorally based, that are operationalized and transformed for delivery via the Internet or mobile platforms. These include electronic tools for patients, informal caregivers, healthy consumers, and health care providers. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was developed to improve the suboptimal reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While the CONSORT statement can be applied to provide broad guidance on how eHealth and mHealth trials should be reported, RCTs of web-based interventions pose very specific issues and challenges, in particular related to reporting sufficient details of the intervention to allow replication and theory-building. Objective To develop a checklist, dubbed CONSORT-EHEALTH (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials of Electronic and Mobile HEalth Applications and onLine TeleHealth), as an extension of the CONSORT statement that provides guidance for authors of eHealth and mHealth interventions. Methods A literature review was conducted, followed by a survey among eHealth experts and a workshop. Results A checklist instrument was constructed as an extension of the CONSORT statement. The instrument has been adopted by the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) and authors of eHealth RCTs are required to submit an electronic checklist explaining how they addressed each subitem. Conclusions CONSORT-EHEALTH has the potential to improve reporting and provides a basis for evaluating the validity and applicability of eHealth trials. Subitems describing how the intervention should be reported can also be used for non-RCT evaluation reports. As part of the development process, an evaluation component is essential; therefore, feedback from authors will be solicited, and a before-after study will evaluate whether reporting has been improved.
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            Definition, structure, content, use and impacts of electronic health records: a review of the research literature.

            This paper reviews the research literature on electronic health record (EHR) systems. The aim is to find out (1) how electronic health records are defined, (2) how the structure of these records is described, (3) in what contexts EHRs are used, (4) who has access to EHRs, (5) which data components of the EHRs are used and studied, (6) what is the purpose of research in this field, (7) what methods of data collection have been used in the studies reviewed and (8) what are the results of these studies. A systematic review was carried out of the research dealing with the content of EHRs. A literature search was conducted on four electronic databases: Pubmed/Medline, Cinalh, Eval and Cochrane. The concept of EHR comprised a wide range of information systems, from files compiled in single departments to longitudinal collections of patient data. Only very few papers offered descriptions of the structure of EHRs or the terminologies used. EHRs were used in primary, secondary and tertiary care. Data were recorded in EHRs by different groups of health care professionals. Secretarial staff also recorded data from dictation or nurses' or physicians' manual notes. Some information was also recorded by patients themselves; this information is validated by physicians. It is important that the needs and requirements of different users are taken into account in the future development of information systems. Several data components were documented in EHRs: daily charting, medication administration, physical assessment, admission nursing note, nursing care plan, referral, present complaint (e.g. symptoms), past medical history, life style, physical examination, diagnoses, tests, procedures, treatment, medication, discharge, history, diaries, problems, findings and immunization. In the future it will be necessary to incorporate different kinds of standardized instruments, electronic interviews and nursing documentation systems in EHR systems. The aspects of information quality most often explored in the studies reviewed were the completeness and accuracy of different data components. It has been shown in several studies that the use of an information system was conducive to more complete and accurate documentation by health care professionals. The quality of information is particularly important in patient care, but EHRs also provide important information for secondary purposes, such as health policy planning. Studies focusing on the content of EHRs are needed, especially studies of nursing documentation or patient self-documentation. One future research area is to compare the documentation of different health care professionals with the core information about EHRs which has been determined in national health projects. The challenge for ongoing national health record projects around the world is to take into account all the different types of EHRs and the needs and requirements of different health care professionals and consumers in the development of EHRs. A further challenge is the use of international terminologies in order to achieve semantic interoperability.
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              Enduring and emerging challenges of informed consent.

              The author summarizes emerging standards for informed consent as the underpinning of ethical research in humans.

                Author and article information

                J Med Internet Res
                J. Med. Internet Res
                Journal of Medical Internet Research
                JMIR Publications Inc. (Toronto, Canada )
                November 2015
                03 November 2015
                : 17
                : 11
                1University Children’s Hospital Düsseldorf Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology Heinrich-Heine-University DüsseldorfGermany
                2Center of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Mathematical Institute Heinrich-Heine-University DüsseldorfGermany
                3University Hospital Düsseldorf Staff Unit Quality Management and Patient Safety Heinrich-Heine-University DüsseldorfGermany
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Markus Vogel markus.vogel@
                ©Markus Vogel, Wolfgang Kaisers, Ralf Wassmuth, Ertan Mayatepek. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 03.11.2015.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                Original Paper
                Original Paper


                randomized controlled trial, automatic speech recognition, electronic health record


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