Lonicera japonica Thunb is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating intestinal inflammation. The extraction method of Lonicera japonica Thunb polysaccharide (LJP) has been developed previously by our research group. In this study, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to perform a qualitative analysis of LJP and a precolumn derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ((Palo Alto, CA, USA) method was used to explore the monosaccharide composition of LJP. Then, we studied the effect of LJP on the intestinal flora and immune functions of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis ulcerative mouse models. The results showed that LJP was consisted of 6 types of monosaccharides and had the characteristic absorption of typical polysaccharides. LJP can increase significantly the weight, organ index, serum cytokines (interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon-γ), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) concentration, and natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) activities in DSS-treated mice. The results of intestinal flora showed that a high dose (150 mg kg-1) of LJP had the best effects on improving the intestinal probiotics (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacilli) and antagonizing the pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus). In addition, the measurement results of the spleen lymphocyte apoptosis confirmed from another perspective that LJP had protective effects of immune cells for DSS-treated mice.