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      Dissecting out the Complex Ca 2+-Mediated Phenylephrine-Induced Contractions of Mouse Aortic Segments

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          L-type Ca 2+ channel (VGCC) mediated Ca 2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to the functional properties of large arteries in arterial stiffening and central blood pressure regulation. How this influx relates to steady-state contractions elicited by α1-adrenoreceptor stimulation and how it is modulated by small variations in resting membrane potential (V m) of VSMC is not clear yet. Here, we show that α1-adrenoreceptor stimulation of aortic segments of C57Bl6 mice with phenylephrine (PE) causes phasic and tonic contractions. By studying the relationship between Ca 2+ mobilisation and isometric tension, it was found that the phasic contraction was due to intracellular Ca 2+ release and the tonic contraction determined by Ca 2+ influx. The latter component involves both Ca 2+ influx via VGCC and via non-selective cation channels (NSCC). Influx via VGCC occurs only within the window voltage range of the channel. Modulation of this window Ca 2+ influx by small variations of the VSMC V m causes substantial effects on the contractile performance of aortic segments. The relative contribution of VGCC and NSCC to the contraction by α1-adrenoceptor stimulation could be manipulated by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ release from non-contractile sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ stores. Results of this study point to a complex interactions between α1-adrenoceptor-mediated VSMC contractile performance and Ca 2+ release form contractile or non-contractile Ca 2+ stores with concomitant Ca 2+ influx. Given the importance of VGCC and their blockers in arterial stiffening and hypertension, they further point toward an additional role of NSCC (and NSCC blockers) herein.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Calcium movements, distribution, and functions in smooth muscle.

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            Ca2+ handling is altered when arterial myocytes progress from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype in culture.

            Phenotypic modulation of vascular myocytes is important for vascular development and adaptation. A characteristic feature of this process is alteration in intracellular Ca(2+) handling, which is not completely understood. We studied mechanisms involved in functional changes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))- and ryanodine (Ry)-sensitive Ca(2+) stores, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), and receptor-operated Ca(2+) entry (ROCE) associated with arterial myocyte modulation from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype in culture. Proliferating, cultured myocytes from rat mesenteric artery have elevated resting cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and increased IP(3)-sensitive Ca(2+) store content. ATP- and cyclopiazonic acid [CPA; a sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor]-induced Ca(2+) transients in Ca(2+)-free medium are significantly larger in proliferating arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) than in freshly dissociated myocytes, whereas caffeine (Caf)-induced Ca(2+) release is much smaller. Moreover, the Caf/Ry-sensitive store gradually loses sensitivity to Caf activation during cell culture. These changes can be explained by increased expression of all three IP(3) receptors and a switch from Ry receptor type II to type III expression during proliferation. SOCE, activated by depletion of the IP(3)/CPA-sensitive store, is greatly increased in proliferating ASMCs. Augmented SOCE and ROCE (activated by the diacylglycerol analog 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol) in proliferating myocytes can be attributed to upregulated expression of, respectively, transient receptor potential proteins TRPC1/4/5 and TRPC3/6. Moreover, stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) and Orai proteins are upregulated in proliferating cells. Increased expression of IP(3) receptors, SERCA2b, TRPCs, Orai(s), and STIM1 in proliferating ASMCs suggests that these proteins play a critical role in an altered Ca(2+) handling that occurs during vascular growth and remodeling.
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              2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) antagonises inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release, inhibits calcium pumps and has a use-dependent and slowly reversible action on store-operated calcium entry channels.

              The action of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) on Ca(2+) signalling in HeLa cells and cardiac myocytes was investigated. Consistent with other studies, we found that superfusion of cells with 2-APB rapidly inhibited inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))-mediated Ca(2+) release and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOC). In addition to abrogating hormone-evoked Ca(2+) responses, 2-APB could antagonise Ca(2+) signals evoked by a membrane permeant InsP(3) ester. 2-APB also slowed the recovery of intracellular Ca(2+) signals consistent with an effect on Ca(2+) ATPases. The inhibitory action of 2-APB on InsP(3) receptors (InsP(3)Rs), SOC channels and Ca(2+) pumps persisted for several minutes after washout of the compound. Application of 2-APB to unstimulated cells had no effect on subsequent Ca(2+) responses suggesting that it has a use-dependent action. Mitochondria in cells treated with 2-APB showed a rapid and slowly reversible swelling. 2-APB did not cause the mitochondria to depolarise, but it reduced the extent of mitochondrial calcium uptake. Although 2-APB has been demonstrated not to affect voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels or ryanodine receptors, we found that it gave a concentration-dependent long-lasting inhibition of Ca(2+) signalling in electrically-stimulated cardiac myocytes, where InsP(3)Rs and SOC channels do not play a significant role. Our data suggest that 2-APB has multiple cellular targets, a use-dependent action, is difficult to reverse and may affect Ca(2+) signalling in cell types where InsP(3) and SOC are not active.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                24 March 2015
                : 10
                : 3
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
                [2 ]Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
                Cinvestav-IPN, MEXICO
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: PF CVH AL. Performed the experiments: PF. Analyzed the data: PF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PF CVH AL HB. Wrote the paper: PF AL WM GDM KL HB DS.


                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Pages: 17
                Research was funded by the University of Antwerp. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
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