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      Incidence and association factors for the development of chronic post-hysterectomy pain at 4- and 6-month follow-up: a prospective cohort study

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          Chronic pain has major adverse effects on health-related quality of life and contributes to significant socioeconomic burden. Hysterectomy is a very common gynecological surgery, resulting in chronic post-hysterectomy pain (CPHP), an important pain syndrome. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 216 Asian women who underwent abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign conditions. Demographic, psychological, and perioperative data were recorded. Postoperative 4- and 6-month phone surveys were conducted to assess the presence of CPHP and functional impairment. The incidence rates of CPHP at 4 and 6 months were 32% (56/175) and 15.7% (25/159), respectively. Women with CPHP at 4 and 6 months had pain that interfered with their activities of daily living. Independent association factors for CPHP at 4 months were higher mechanical temporal summation score, higher intraoperative morphine consumption, higher pain score in the recovery room, higher pain score during coughing and itching at 24 hours postoperatively, and preoperative pain in the lower abdominal region. Independent association factors for CPHP at 6 months were preoperative pain during sexual intercourse, higher mechanical temporal summation score, and higher morphine consumption during postoperative 24 and 48 hours. In a majority of cases, CPHP resolved with time, but may have significant impact on activities of daily living.

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           Alan Acock (2005)
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            Prediction of chronic post-operative pain: pre-operative DNIC testing identifies patients at risk.

            Surgical and medical procedures, mainly those associated with nerve injuries, may lead to chronic persistent pain. Currently, one cannot predict which patients undergoing such procedures are 'at risk' to develop chronic pain. We hypothesized that the endogenous analgesia system is key to determining the pattern of handling noxious events, and therefore testing diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) will predict susceptibility to develop chronic post-thoracotomy pain (CPTP). Pre-operative psychophysical tests, including DNIC assessment (pain reduction during exposure to another noxious stimulus at remote body area), were conducted in 62 patients, who were followed 29.0+/-16.9 weeks after thoracotomy. Logistic regression revealed that pre-operatively assessed DNIC efficiency and acute post-operative pain intensity were two independent predictors for CPTP. Efficient DNIC predicted lower risk of CPTP, with OR 0.52 (0.33-0.77 95% CI, p=0.0024), i.e., a 10-point numerical pain scale (NPS) reduction halves the chance to develop chronic pain. Higher acute pain intensity indicated OR of 1.80 (1.28-2.77, p=0.0024) predicting nearly a double chance to develop chronic pain for each 10-point increase. The other psychophysical measures, pain thresholds and supra-threshold pain magnitudes, did not predict CPTP. For prediction of acute post-operative pain intensity, DNIC efficiency was not found significant. Effectiveness of the endogenous analgesia system obtained at a pain-free state, therefore, seems to reflect the individual's ability to tackle noxious events, identifying patients 'at risk' to develop post-intervention chronic pain. Applying this diagnostic approach before procedures that might generate pain may allow individually tailored pain prevention and management, which may substantially reduce suffering.
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              Acute pain after thoracic surgery predicts long-term post-thoracotomy pain.

              Long-term pain is a common sequela of thoracotomy, occurring in approximately 50% of patients 2 years after thoracic surgery. Despite this alarming statistic, little is known about the factors responsible for the transition of acute to chronic pain. The aim of the present study is to identify predictors of long-term post-thoracotomy pain. Follow-up was for 1.5 years for patients who had participated in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of preemptive, multimodal analgesia. Subjects were recruited from a tertiary care center. Thirty patients who had undergone lateral thoracotomy were followed up by telephone, administered a structured interview, and classified according to long-term pain status. Present pain status was measured by a verbal rating scale (VAS). Measures obtained within the first 48 h after surgery were compared between patients with and without pain 1.5 years later. These include VAS pain scores at rest and after movement, McGill Pain Questionnaire data, patient-controlled morphine consumption (mg), and pain thresholds to pressure applied to a rib contralateral to the thoracotomy incision. Fifty-two percent of patients reported long-term pain. Early postoperative pain was the only factor that significantly predicted long-term pain. Pain intensity 24 h after surgery, at rest, and after movement was significantly greater among patients who developed long-term pain compared with pain-free patients. A significant predictive relationship was also found at 24 and 48 h using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Cumulative morphine was comparable for the two groups. Pain thresholds to pressure applied to a rib contralateral to the incision did not differ significantly between the groups. Aggressive management of early postoperative pain may reduce the likelihood of long-term post-thoracotomy pain.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                27 March 2018
                : 11
                : 629-636
                [1 ]Department of Women’s Anaesthesia, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
                [2 ]Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
                [3 ]Ministry of Health Holdings, Singapore, Singapore
                [4 ]Division of Clinical Support Services, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
                [5 ]Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
                [6 ]Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ban Leong Sng, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road 229899 Singapore, Singapore, Tel +65 6394 1077, Fax +65 6291 2661, Email sng.ban.leong@ 123456singhealth.com.sg
                © 2018 Sng et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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