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      World on Data Perspective

      World
      MDPI AG

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          It is not simple to consider the world from only one side, but analyzing all sides can cloud comprehension without reaching deep insight found at the core. In a word as a whole, there is potential for telling the whole world in one word, i.e., data, leading to interpretations as phenomena and paradigms at the core of this review. The tug of war between the two sides explains that data represent the world, or vice versa, and present a fundamental view that systems or subsystems frame the world, even though they are encoded and composed of culture, rules, or approaches such as the threshold of democracy. When the COVID-19 pandemic posed a threat, human efforts contributed to finding potentially answers to questions presented by the world: what, who, where, when, why, and how (5 wh); a calling in the form of a challenge, where facts show something. All these questions resulted in research, education, and service activities, with their respective data frameworks producing results. This paper aims to reveal the meaning of the outcomes through an observation from an outside perspective. Therefore, like COVID-19 and its vaccines, the assertion of convexity and concave contradictions in the treatment of data leads to a mutually conjugate treatment of data. In this regard, statistics and artificial intelligence play separate and complementary roles.

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          Most cited references177

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          Homogeneous studies of transiting extrasolar planets - IV. Thirty systems with space-based light curves

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            Babesia: a world emerging.

            Babesia are tick-transmitted hemoprotozooans that infect mammals and birds, and which are acknowledged for their major impact on farm and pet animal health and associated economic costs worldwide. Additionally, Babesia infections of wildlife can be fatal if associated with stressful management practices; and human babesiosis, also transmitted by blood transfusion, is an increasing public-health concern. Due to the huge diversity of species reported to serve as Babesia hosts, all vertebrates might be potential carriers, as long as they are adequate hosts for Babesia-vector ticks. We here provide a comprehensive overview of the most relevant Babesia species, and a discussion of the classical taxonomic criteria. Babesia, Cytauxzoon and Theileria parasites are closely related and collectively referred to as piroplasmids. A possible scenario for the history of piroplasmids is presented in the context of recent findings, and its implications for future research avenues are outlined. Phylogenetic trees of all available 18S rRNA and hsp70 genes were generated, based on which we present a thoroughly revised molecular classification, comprising five monophyletic Babesia lineages, one Cytauxzoon clade, and one Theileria clade. Updated 18S rRNA and beta-tubulin gene trees of the B. microti isolates agree with those previously reported. To reconcile estimates of the origin of piroplasmids and ticks (~300 Ma, respectively), and mammalian radiation (60 Ma), we hypothesize that the dixenous piroplasmid life cycle evolved with the origin of ticks. Thus, the observed time gap between tick origin and mammalian radiation indicates the existence of hitherto unknown piroplasmid lineages and/or species in extant vertebrate taxa, including reptiles and possibly amphibians. The development and current status of the molecular taxonomy of Babesia, with emphasis on human-infecting species, is discussed. Finally, recent results from population genetic studies of Babesia parasites, and their implications for the development of pathogenicity, drug resistance and vaccines, are summarized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Powerful three-sample genome-wide design and robust statistical inference in summary-data Mendelian randomization

              Summary-data Mendelian randomization (MR) has become a popular research design to estimate the causal effect of risk exposures. With the sample size of GWAS continuing to increase, it is now possible to use genetic instruments that are only weakly associated with the exposure. We propose a three-sample genome-wide design where typically 1000 independent genetic instruments across the whole genome are used. We develop an empirical partially Bayes statistical analysis approach where instruments are weighted according to their strength; thus weak instruments bring less variation to the estimator. The estimator is highly efficient with many weak genetic instruments and is robust to balanced and/or sparse pleiotropy. We apply our method to estimate the causal effect of body mass index (BMI) and major blood lipids on cardiovascular disease outcomes, and obtain substantially shorter confidence intervals (CIs). In particular, the estimated causal odds ratio of BMI on ischaemic stroke is 1.19 (95% CI: 1.07–1.32, P-value <0.001); the estimated causal odds ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on coronary artery disease (CAD) is 0.78 (95% CI: 0.73–0.84, P-value <0.001). However, the estimated effect of HDL-C attenuates and become statistically non-significant when we only use strong instruments. A genome-wide design can greatly improve the statistical power of MR studies. Robust statistical methods may alleviate but not solve the problem of horizontal pleiotropy. Our empirical results suggest that the relationship between HDL-C and CAD is heterogeneous, and it may be too soon to completely dismiss the HDL hypothesis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                World
                World
                MDPI AG
                2673-4060
                September 2022
                September 12 2022
                : 3
                : 3
                : 736-752
                Article
                10.3390/world3030041
                d4a627be-e907-4b70-a887-73c448d10284
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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