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A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Seawater, Animals, Phylogeny, metabolism, analysis, Methane, Lipids, Invertebrates, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Hydrogen, Hot Temperature, microbiology, chemistry, Geologic Sediments, Fishes, Environment, Ecosystem, Colony Count, Microbial, Carbonates, Biomass, Biodiversity, isolation & purification, growth & development, classification, Bacteria, Archaea

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      The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems.

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