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      Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of HX-1171, a novel antioxidant, in healthy volunteers

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          Abstract

          Background

          HX-1171 (1-O-hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone) is a promising antioxidant with therapeutic potential for hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of HX-1171 in healthy volunteers.

          Methods

          A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study was conducted in 83 subjects. In the single ascending dose study, 20, 40, 80, 160, 300, 600, 1,200, 1,500 or 2,000 mg of HX-1171 was administered to 67 subjects. In the multiple ascending dose study, 500 or 1,000 mg was administered to 16 subjects for 14 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of HX-1171 were determined by using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed based on physical examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, and electrocardiograms.

          Results

          Adverse events reported in the study were all mild in intensity and resolved without any sequelae. HX-1171 was rapidly and minimally absorbed with a median time at maximal concentration of 0.63–1.50 hours and slowly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 21.12–40.96 hours. Accumulation index ranged from 2.0 to 2.2 after repeated dosing for 14 days. For both the single and multiple doses administrations, urinary concentrations indicated that less than 0.01% of the HX-1171 administered was excreted in urine.

          Conclusion

          HX-1171 was well tolerated and minimally absorbed in healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic profile of HX-1171 was consistent with once-a-day dosing.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Role of oxidative stress and molecular changes in liver fibrosis: a review.

          Liver fibrosis represents a health problem with significant morbidity and mortality that affects 100 million people worldwide. It is a final pathway to several chronic liver diseases and is characterized by excess collagen and accumulation of extracellular matrix in response to chronic hepatocellular damage. Clinical and experimental data suggest that oxidative stress (OS) mediates the progression of fibrosis, and that OS-related molecules may act as mediators of molecular and cellular events implicated in liver fibrosis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in producing liver damage and initiating hepatic fibrogenesis. OS disrupts lipids, proteins and DNA, induces necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocytes and amplifies the inflammatory response. ROS also stimulate the production of profibrogenic mediators from Kupffer cells and circulating inflammatory cells and directly activate hepatic stellate cells, resulting in the initiation of fibrosis. Advances in understanding the mechanisms involved in fibrosis have identified new molecular targets with therapeutic potential for more targeted and personalized control of this disease. This review will highlight recent concepts in OS, antioxidants and the molecular pathways involved in hepatic fibrosis.
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            Risk factors of fibrosis in alcohol-induced liver disease.

            In patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), age, obesity, and diabetes mellitus are independent predictors of the degree of fibrosis. The relative risk for fibrosis adjusted for sex was also associated with increasing grade of Perls stain. The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk factors for fibrosis described in NASH are also risk factors in alcohol-induced liver disease. A total of 268 alcoholic patients with negative hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus serology underwent liver biopsy. Fibrosis was assessed semiquantitatively by a score fluctuating between 0 to 8. Liver iron overload was assessed by Perls staining and graded in 4 classes. We have used multivariate regression with partial correlation analysis to assess the variability of fibrosis score according to the value of 7 variables: sex, age, body mass index (BMI) in the past year before the hospitalization when the patient was asymptomatic, daily alcohol intake over the past 5 years, total duration of alcohol abuse, Perls grade, and blood glucose level. In the multivariate regression, fibrosis score was positively correlated with age (P =.001), BMI (P =.002), female sex (P <.05), Perls grade (P <.05), and blood glucose level (P <.05). Twenty percent of the variability of fibrosis score was explained by the 7 variables. In conclusion, after adjustment for daily alcohol intake and total duration of alcohol abuse, BMI, Perls grade, and blood glucose are also independent risk factors for fibrosis in alcohol-induced liver disease, raising therapeutic implications for the management of these patients.
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              Confidence interval criteria for assessment of dose proportionality.

              The aim of this work was a pragmatic, statistically sound and clinically relevant approach to dose-proportionality analyses that is compatible with common study designs. Statistical estimation is used to derive a (1-alpha)% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of dose-normalized, geometric mean values (Rdnm) of a pharmacokinetic variable (PK). An acceptance interval for Rdnm defining the clinically relevant, dose-proportional region is established a priori. Proportionality is declared if the CI for Rdnm is completely contained within the critical region. The approach is illustrated with mixed-effects models based on a power function of the form PK = beta0 x Dose(beta1); however, the logic holds for other functional forms. It was observed that the dose-proportional region delineated by a power model depends only on the dose ratio. Furthermore, a dose ratio (rho1) can be calculated such that the CI lies entirely within the pre-specified critical region. A larger ratio (rho2) may exist such that the CI lies completely outside that region. The approach supports inferences about the PK response that are not constrained to the exact dose levels studied. The proposed method enhances the information from a clinical dose-proportionality study and helps to standardize decision rules.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                23 March 2015
                : 9
                : 1735-1742
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Nippon Hypox Laboratories Inc., Yamanashi, Japan
                [3 ]College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]Biotoxtech Co., Ltd, Cheongju, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kyun-Seop Bae, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 2 3010 4623, Fax +82 2 3010 4622, Email ksbae@ 123456amc.seoul.kr
                Article
                dddt-9-1735
                10.2147/DDDT.S79724
                4376184
                25848210
                © 2015 Kim et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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