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      Relative Deprivation and Game Addiction in Left-Behind Children: A Moderated Mediation


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          Previous findings show that relative deprivation has a profound influence on game addiction, but the potential mediating and moderating mechanisms are unclear, especially for left-behind children. The present study therefore examined the relationship between relative deprivation and game addiction, the mediating effect of deviant peer affiliation, and the moderating effect of beliefs about adversity in a sample of left-behind children. A total of 952 left-behind children (mean age = 13.67 years, SD = 1.34) participated in this study. The participants anonymously completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Relative Deprivation Scale, the Deviant Peer Affiliation Scale, the Beliefs about Adversity Scale, the Game Addiction Scale, and demographic variables. After controlling for gender, left-behind category, and socioeconomic status, the moderated mediation model showed that (a) relative deprivation significantly and positively predicted game addiction in left-behind children; (b) The mediation analysis showed that the positive association between relative deprivation and game addiction in left-behind children was mediated by deviant peer affiliation; (c) Beliefs about adversity moderated the association between relative deprivation and deviant peer affiliation and were weaker for left-behind children with higher levels of beliefs about adversity, consistent with the risk-buffering model, but the relationship between relative deprivation and game addiction was stronger for left-behind children with higher levels of beliefs about adversity, consistent with the reverse risk-buffering model. These findings have crucial implications for the prevention and intervention of game addiction in left-behind children.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Childhood multiple risk factor exposure exceeds the adverse developmental impacts of singular exposures. Multiple risk factor exposure may also explain why sociodemographic variables (e.g., poverty) can have adverse consequences. Most research on multiple risk factor exposure has relied upon cumulative risk (CR) as the measure of multiple risk. CR is constructed by dichotomizing each risk factor exposure (0 = no risk; 1 = risk) and then summing the dichotomous scores. Despite its widespread use in developmental psychology and elsewhere, CR has several shortcomings: Risk is designated arbitrarily; data on risk intensity are lost; and the index is additive, precluding the possibility of statistical interactions between risk factors. On the other hand, theoretically more compelling multiple risk metrics prove untenable because of low statistical power, extreme higher order interaction terms, low robustness, and collinearity among risk factors. CR multiple risk metrics are parsimonious, are statistically sensitive even with small samples, and make no assumptions about the relative strengths of multiple risk factors or their collinearity. CR also fits well with underlying theoretical models (e.g., Bronfenbrenner's, 1979, bioecological model; McEwen's, 1998, allostasis model of chronic stress; and Ellis, Figueredo, Brumbach, & Schlomer's, 2009, developmental evolutionary theory) concerning why multiple risk factor exposure is more harmful than singular risk exposure. We review the child CR literature, comparing CR to alternative multiple risk measurement models. We also discuss strengths and weaknesses of developmental CR research, offering analytic and theoretical suggestions to strengthen this growing area of scholarship. Finally, we highlight intervention and policy implications of CR and child development research and theory. © 2013 American Psychological Association
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              Relative deprivation: a theoretical and meta-analytic review.

              Relative deprivation (RD) is the judgment that one is worse off compared to some standard accompanied by feelings of anger and resentment. Social scientists use RD to predict a wide range of significant outcome variables: collective action, individual achievement and deviance, intergroup attitudes, and physical and mental health. But the results are often weak and inconsistent. The authors draw on a theoretical and meta-analytic review (210 studies composing 293 independent samples, 421 tests, and 186,073 respondents) to present a model that integrates group and individual RD. RD measures that (a) include justice-related affect, (b) match the outcome level of analysis, and (c) use higher quality measures yield significantly stronger relationships. Future research should focus on appropriate RD measurement, angry resentment, and the inclusion of theoretically relevant situational appraisals. Such methodological improvements would revitalize RD as a useful social psychological predictor of a wide range of important individual and social processes.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                03 June 2021
                : 12
                1Faculty of Education, East China Normal University , Shanghai, China
                2Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment Towards Basic Education Quality , Beijing, China
                3Sanmenxia Polytechnic, College of Applied Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology , Sanmenxia, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Bernadeta Lelonek-Kuleta, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland

                Reviewed by: Giulio D’Urso, University College Dublin, Ireland; Chengfu Yu, Guangzhou University, China

                *Correspondence: Jin Huang, huangjin0827@ 123456126.com

                These authors have contributed equally to this work and share first authorship

                This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2021 Yang, Cai, Xiong and Huang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 10, Words: 0
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