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Selection for energy efficiency drives strand-biased gene distribution in prokaryotes

1 , 3 , 2 , 3 , , 1

Scientific Reports

Nature Publishing Group UK

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      Abstract

      Lagging-strand genes accumulate more deleterious mutations. Genes are thus preferably located on the leading strand, an observation known as strand-biased gene distribution (SGD). Despite of this mechanistic understanding, a satisfactory quantitative model is still lacking. Replication-transcription-collisions induce stalling of the replication machinery, expose DNA to various attacks, and are followed by error-prone repairs. We found that mutational biases in non-transcribed regions can explain ~71% of the variations in SGDs in 1,552 genomes, supporting the mutagenesis origin of SGD. Mutational biases introduce energetically cheaper nucleotides on the lagging strand, and result in more expensive protein products; consistently, the cost difference between the two strands explains ~50% of the variance in SGDs. Protein costs decrease with increasing gene expression. At similar expression levels, protein products of leading-strand genes are generally cheaper than lagging-strand genes; however, highly-expressed lagging genes are still cheaper than lowly-expressed leading genes. Selection for energy efficiency thus drives some genes to the leading strand, especially those highly expressed and essential, but certainly not all genes. Stronger mutational biases are often associated with low-GC genomes; as low-GC genes encode expensive proteins, low-GC genomes thus tend to have stronger SGDs to alleviate the stronger pressure on efficient energy usage.

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      NCBI GEO: archive for functional genomics data sets—update

      The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) is an international public repository for high-throughput microarray and next-generation sequence functional genomic data sets submitted by the research community. The resource supports archiving of raw data, processed data and metadata which are indexed, cross-linked and searchable. All data are freely available for download in a variety of formats. GEO also provides several web-based tools and strategies to assist users to query, analyse and visualize data. This article reports current status and recent database developments, including the release of GEO2R, an R-based web application that helps users analyse GEO data.
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        tRNAscan-SE: A Program for Improved Detection of Transfer RNA Genes in Genomic Sequence

         T. M. Lowe,  S. Eddy (1997)
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          GenBank

          GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0368 7223, GRID grid.33199.31, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics and Molecular-imaging, Department of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), ; 430074 Wuhan, Hubei China
            [2 ]Department of Blood Transfusion, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, No 1, Xinsi Road, Chanba District, 710000 Xi’an, China
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2176 9917, GRID grid.411327.2, Institute for Computer Science and Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences CEPLAS, Heinrich Heine University, ; 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
            Contributors
            weihuachen@hust.edu.cn
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            5 September 2017
            5 September 2017
            2017
            : 7
            28874819
            5585166
            11159
            10.1038/s41598-017-11159-3
            © The Author(s) 2017

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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