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       Austrelatus gen. nov., a new genus of Australasian diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae), with the discovery of 31 new species from New Guinea


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          Herein, Austrelatus gen. nov. (type species: Copelatus irregularis W.J. Macleay, 1871) is described for a distinctive lineage of predominantly Australasian species previously assigned to Copelatus Erichson, 1832. The new genus was retrieved as well supported, monophyletic clade in phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences data using Bayesian and parsimony approaches. The main morphological diagnostic character of Austrelatus is a complex median lobe of the aedeagus, with evident dorsal and ventral sclerites usually divided in apical half into two lobes of different shape or otherwise modified. Morphological comparison of the new genus with other Copelatinae genera, especially with Copelatus and Exocelina Broun, 1886, and a generic key to the New Guinean Copelatinae are provided. New combinations are established for 31 already described species mainly from the Australian Region (all from Copelatus ): Austrelatus adelbert (Megna, Atthakor, Manaono, Hendrich & Balke, 2017), comb. nov.; A. badeni (Sharp, 1882), comb. nov.; A. bakewelli (J. Balfour-Browne, 1939), comb. nov.; A. baranensis (Hájek, Shaverdo, Hendrich & Balke, 2021), comb. nov.; A. bougainvillensis (Hájek, Shaverdo, Hendrich & Balke, 2021), comb. nov.; A. boukali (Hendrich & Balke, 1998), comb. nov.; A. clarki (Sharp, 1882), comb. nov.; A. daemeli (Sharp, 1882), comb. nov.; A. davidi (Wewalka, 2017), comb. nov.; A. deccanensis (Sheth, Ghate & Hájek, 2018), comb. nov.; A. fidschiensis (Zimmermann, 1928), comb. nov.; A. gestroi (Régimbart, 1892), comb. nov.; A. irregularis (W.J. Macleay, 1871), comb. nov.; A. kaszabi (Guignot, 1956), comb. nov.; A. kietensis (Hájek, Shaverdo, Hendrich & Balke, 2021), comb. nov.; A. laevipennis (Hájek, Shaverdo, Hendrich & Balke, 2021), comb. nov.; A. luteomaculatus (Guignot, 1956), comb. nov.; A. maushomi (Sheth, Ghate & Hájek, 2018), comb. nov.; A. neoguineensis (Zimmermann, 1919), comb. nov.; A. nigrolineatus (Sharp, 1882), comb. nov.; A. papuensis (J. Balfour-Browne, 1939), comb. nov.; A. parallelus (Zimmermann, 1920a), comb. nov.; A. schuhi (Hendrich & Balke, 1998), comb. nov.; A. sibelaemontis (Hájek, Hendrich, Hawlitschek & Balke, 2010), comb. nov.; A. strigosulus (Fairmaire, 1878), comb. nov.; A. ternatensis (Régimbart, 1899), comb. nov.; A. uludanuensis (Hendrich & Balke, 1995), comb. nov.; A. urceolus (Hájek, Shaverdo, Hendrich & Balke, 2021), comb. nov.; A. variistriatus (Hájek, Shaverdo, Hendrich & Balke, 2021), comb. nov.; A. wallacei (J. Balfour-Browne, 1939), comb. nov. and A. xanthocephalus (Régimbart, 1899), comb. nov. Austrelatus species from New Guinea are divided into two informal species groups, the A. neoguineensis group and A. papuensis group, and A. fumato sp. nov. and A. setiphallus sp. nov. standing aside of them. The A. neoguineensis group is introduced with three previously known species and 29 new species described here based on the morphological characters and Cox1 data: Austrelatus baliem sp. nov., A. bormensis sp. nov., A. brazza sp. nov., A. debulensis sp. nov., A. fakfak sp. nov., A. febrisauri sp. nov., A. fojaensis sp. nov., A. garainensis sp. nov., A. innominatus sp. nov., A. lembenensis sp. nov., A. lisae sp. nov., A. manokwariensis sp. nov., A. mimika sp. nov., A. mirificus sp. nov., A. moreguinensis sp. nov., A. nadjae sp. nov., A. oksibilensis sp. nov., A. pseudoneoguineensis sp. nov., A. pseudoksibilensis sp. nov., A. rajaampatensis sp. nov., A. rouaffer sp. nov., A. rugosus sp. nov., A. sandaunensis sp. nov., A. sarmiensis sp. nov., A. securiformis sp. nov., A. testegensis sp. nov., A. toricelli sp. nov., A. vagauensis sp. nov., and A. wanggarensis sp. nov. Copelatus vagestriatus Zimmermann, 1919, syn. nov. is recognised as a junior subjective synonym of A. clarki (Sharp, 1882). The lectotypes of Copelatus gestroi Régimbart, 1892, C. neoguineensis Zimmermann, 1919 and C. xanthocephalus Régimbart, 1899 are designated. All species are (re)described, and their important species characters (genitalia, habitus, and colour patterns) are illustrated. Keys to all species are provided. The known distribution and habitat preferences of each species are outlined briefly. New Guinean Austrelatus occupy a variety of stagnant water habitats, either lentic sensu stricto, or standing water associated with lotic habitats (e.g., backflows, rockpools, intermittent / ephemeral stream pools).

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          Beyond barcodes: complex DNA taxonomy of a South Pacific Island radiation.

          DNA barcodes can provide rapid species identification and aid species inventories in taxonomically unstudied groups. However, the approach may fail in recently diverged groups with complex gene histories, such as those typically found on oceanic islands. We produced a DNA-based inventory of taxonomically little known diving beetles (genus Copelatus) in the Fiji archipelago, where they are a dominant component of the aquatic invertebrate fauna. Sampling from 25 localities on five islands and analysis of sequences from one nuclear (328bp histone 3) and three mitochondrial (492bp rrnL, 786bp cox1, 333bp cob) gene regions revealed high haplotype diversity, mainly originated since the Pleistocene, and subdivided into three major phylogenetic lineages and 22 statistical parsimony networks. A traditional taxonomic study delineated 25 morphologically defined species that were largely incongruent with the DNA-based groups. Haplotype diversity and their spatial arrangement demonstrated a continuum of relatedness in Fijian Copelatus, with evidence for introgression at various hierarchical levels. The study illustrates the difficulties for formal classification in evolutionarily complex lineages, and the potentially misleading conclusions obtained from either DNA barcodes or morphological traits alone. However, the sequence profile of Fijian Copelatus provides an evolutionary framework for the group and a DNA-based reference system for the integration of ecological and other biodiversity data, independent of the Linnaean naming system.
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              Habitat and Community Patterns of Tropical Australian Hydradephagan Water Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Noteridae)


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                19 July 2023
                : 1170
                : 1-164
                [1 ] Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Burgring 7, 1010, Vienna, Austria Naturhistorisches Museum Wien Vienna Austria
                [2 ] Department of Entomology, National Museum, Cirkusová 1740, CZ-193 00 Praha 9 – Horní Počernice, Czech Republic National Museum Prague Czech Republic
                [3 ] SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Münchhausenstraße 21, D-81247, Munich, Germany SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München Munich Germany
                [4 ] GeoBioCenter, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich Germany
                [5 ] Department of Biology, Universitas Cendrawasih, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia Universitas Cendrawasih Jayapura Indonesia
                [6 ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, State University of Papua (UNIPA), Jalan Gunung Salju Amban, Manokwari 98314, West Papua, Indonesia State University of Papua Manokwari Indonesia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Helena Shaverdo ( shaverdo@ 123456mail.ru ; helena.shaverdo@ 123456nhm-wien.ac.at)

                Academic editor: Mariano Michat

                Author information
                Helena Shaverdo, Jiří Hájek, Lars Hendrich, Suriani Surbakti, Rawati Panjaitan, Michael Balke

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 21 March 2023
                : 17 May 2023
                Funded by: Austrian Science Fund 501100002428 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100002428
                Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic; Bayerischer Pakt für Forschung und Innovation (BayPFI)
                Research Article
                Identification Key
                Papua New Guinea

                Animal science & Zoology
                australasia,lectotype designation,new combination,new guinea,new species,species group,taxonomy


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