Orexin-A is an orexigenic peptide expressed mainly in the hypothalamus. Orexin-A increases and anti-orexin-A antibodies decrease food intake. However, the exact mechanism by which orexin-A exerts its orexigenic action is not fully elucidated. The histaminergic system is known to play a role in feeding behavior and we hypothesized that it could be involved in the orexigenic effect of orexin-A. To study this, we used histamine knockout animals and pharmacological blockade of the histaminergic system and studied the effect of orexin-A on feeding behavior and gene expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY). Orexin-A was administered intracerebroventricularly and food intake measured in wild-type, histamine H<sub>1</sub>-receptor knockout or histidine decarboxylase knockout mice. Additionally, we administered orexin-A to wild-type mice with pharmacologically blocked H<sub>1</sub>-receptors or pharmacologically stimulated autoinhibitory H<sub>3</sub>-receptors. By quantitative real-time PCR we measured the effect of orexin-A on NPY mRNA expression in wild-type and knockout mice. Orexin-A dose-dependently stimulated food intake when administered to wild-type mice in doses up to 0.03 µg. Orexin-A in a dose of 0.01 µg increased food intake 10-fold in wild-type mice, whereas no increase in food intake was seen in either knockout mice or pharmacologically manipulated mice. Orexin-A increased NPY mRNA 4-fold in wild-type mice, whereas no change was observed in knockout mice. We conclude that the orexigenic effect of orexin-A is dependent on an intact histaminergic neuronal system and seems to involve an H<sub>1</sub>-receptor mechanism.