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      Short-Term Change in Measures of Glycemia in Obese Youth Meeting Criteria for Prediabetes: A Retrospective Chart Review

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          Background: The prevalence of youth diagnosed with prediabetes is increasing, yet there is a lack of guidelines on how to manage this condition clinically. Objectives: The aim was to determine the short-term outcomes of patients referred with prediabetes and to determine predictors of worsening dysglycemia in youth. Study Design: This is a retrospective chart review of patients referred to our Youth Diabetes Prevention Clinic (YDPC) with laboratory tests indicating an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We defined glycemic categories by HbA1c with normoglycemia as HbA1c <5.7%, prediabetes I (P1) as HbA1c 5.7 to <6.0%, and prediabetes II (P2) as HbA1c 6.0 to <6.5%. We compared HbA1c at the time of referral (screening HbA1c) and at the YDPC visit (YDPC HbA1c) to assess for improvement or worsening. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess predictors of prediabetes. Results: Among 562 patients seen, 336 had both screening and YDPC HbA1c values. Race ( p < 0.001) and screening glycemic category ( p < 0.001) were significantly associated with dysglycemia at the YDPC visit, while sex ( p = 0.50), BMI z-score change ( p = 0.27), and days from referral ( p = 0.83) were not. As compared to those who reverted to normoglycemia, patients with prediabetes at YDPC were 7 times more likely to have a higher screening HbA1c (both P1 and P2). The majority of patients referred with prediabetes had lower HbA1c at the YDPC (75.4–82.6%). Conclusion: Patients with screening HbA1c <6% might benefit from a 4-month follow-up at primary care while recommending lifestyle changes. Patients of minority race and screening HbA1c ≥6% are more likely to have a persistent elevation of HbA1c.

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          Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity.

          Childhood obesity, epidemic in the United States, has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents. We determined the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in a multiethnic cohort of 167 obese children and adolescents. All subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose-tolerance test (1.75 g [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] of glucose per kilogram of body weight), and glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured. Fasting levels of proinsulin were obtained, and the ratio of proinsulin to insulin was calculated. Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostatic model assessment, and beta-cell function was estimated by calculating the ratio between the changes in the insulin level and the glucose level during the first 30 minutes after the ingestion of glucose. Impaired glucose tolerance was detected in 25 percent of the 55 obese children (4 to 10 years of age) and 21 percent of the 112 obese adolescents (11 to 18 years of age); silent type 2 diabetes was identified in 4 percent of the obese adolescents. Insulin and C-peptide levels were markedly elevated after the glucose-tolerance test in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance but not in adolescents with diabetes, who had a reduced ratio of the 30-minute change in the insulin level to the 30-minute change in the glucose level. After the body-mass index had been controlled for, insulin resistance was greater in the affected cohort and was the best predictor of impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance is highly prevalent among children and adolescents with severe obesity, irrespective of ethnic group. Impaired oral glucose tolerance was associated with insulin resistance while beta-cell function was still relatively preserved. Overt type 2 diabetes was linked to beta-cell failure.
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            Prevalence and determinants of insulin resistance among U.S. adolescents: a population-based study.

            We sought to examine the distribution of insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and associations of HOMA-IR with sex, race/ethnicity, age, and weight status, as measured by BMI, among U.S. adolescents. Of 4,902 adolescents aged 12-19 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002, analysis was performed for a nationally representative subsample of 1,802 adolescents without diabetes who had fasting laboratory measurements. The main outcome measure was HOMA-IR, calculated from fasting insulin and glucose and log transformed for multiple linear regression analyses. In adjusted regression models that included age and weight status, girls had higher HOMA-IR than boys and Mexican-American children had higher HOMA-IR levels than white children. There were no significant differences in adjusted HOMA-IR between black and white children. Obese children (BMI >/=95th percentile) had significantly higher levels of HOMA-IR compared with children of normal weight (BMI <85th percentile) in adjusted comparisons (mean HOMA-IR 4.93 [95% CI 4.56-5.35] vs. 2.30 [2.21-2.39], respectively). Weight status was by far the most important determinant of insulin resistance, accounting for 29.1% of the variance in HOMA-IR. The prevalence of insulin resistance in obese adolescents was 52.1% (95% CI 44.5-59.8). Obesity in U.S. adolescents represents the most important risk factor for insulin resistance, independent of sex, age, or race/ethnicity. The prevalence of insulin resistance in obese children foreshadows a worrisome trend for the burden of type 2 diabetes in the U.S.
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              Predictors of changes in glucose tolerance status in obese youth.

              Type 2 diabetes in obese youth is an emerging problem. The metabolic and anthropometric predictors of change in glucose tolerance status in obese youth are unknown. A total of 117 obese children and adolescents were studied by performing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after approximately 2 years. Data from both OGTTs and changes in weight were examined to identify youth at highest risk for developing diabetes and the factors that have the strongest impact on glucose tolerance. Eighty-four subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 33 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline. Eight subjects (all of whom had IGT at baseline) developed type 2 diabetes, whereas 15 subjects with IGT reverted to NGT. In this cohort, severe obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and African-American background emerged as the best predictors of developing type 2 diabetes, whereas fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were nonpredictive. Changes in insulin sensitivity, strongly related to weight change, had a significant impact on the 2-h glucose level on the follow-up study. Severely obese children and adolescents with IGT, particularly of African-American descent, are at very high risk for developing type 2 diabetes over a short period of time. Parameters derived from an OGTT and not fasting samples can serve as predictors of changes in glucose tolerance.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                July 2020
                21 April 2020
                : 93
                : 1
                : 1-6
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
                bDepartment of Pediatric and Adolescent Comparative Effectiveness Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
                cIndiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
                Author notes
                *Tamara S. Hannon, Indiana University School of Medicine, 410 West 10th Street, Suite 2000A, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (USA), tshannon@iu.edu
                506944 Horm Res Paediatr 2020;93:1–6
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 6
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