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      The neuroprotective effects of curcumin are associated with the regulation of the reciprocal function between autophagy and HIF-1α in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury


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          The beneficial, neuroprotective effects of curcumin against ischemia-reperfusion injury have been demonstrated. In the present study, whether curcumin exerts neuroprotective effects associated with the inhibition of autophagy and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was investigated.

          Materials and methods

          PC12 cellular model of oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) has been developed to mimic cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cell viability was evaluated using the CellTiter 96 ® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay. Apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of HIF-1α and autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 and P62, were examined using Western blot. The autophagy flux was quantitatively estimated based on the number of autophagic compartments using fluorescence microscopy. In addition, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was administered to PC12 cells to investigate how autophagy affects HIF-1α. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of HIF-1α on autophagy activation level were examined.


          In this study, curcumin decreased the death and apoptosis of cells, and inhibited autophagy and HIF-1α under OGD/R conditions, consistent with 3-MA treatment or HIF-1α downregulation. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy caused a decrease in HIF-1α, and the attenuation of HIF-1α induced autophagy suppression under OGD/R conditions.


          The results of this study showed that curcumin exerts neuroprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion, which is associated with the regulation of the reciprocal function between autophagy and HIF-1α.

          Most cited references40

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          Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor.

          A single cell clonal line which responds reversibly to nerve growth factor (NGF) has been established from a transplantable rat adrenal pheochromocytoma. This line, designated PC12, has a homogeneous and near-diploid chromosome number of 40. By 1 week's exposure to NGF, PC12 cells cease to multiply and begin to extend branching varicose processes similar to those produced by sympathetic neurons in primary cell culture. By several weeks of exposure to NGF, the PC12 processes reach 500-1000 mum in length. Removal of NGF is followed by degeneration of processes within 24 hr and by resumption of cell multiplication within 72 hr. PC12 cells grown with or without NGF contain dense core chromaffin-like granules up to 350 nm in diameter. The NGF-treated cells also contain small vesicles which accumulate in process varicosities and endings. PC12 cells synthesize and store the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. The levels (per mg of protein) of catecholamines and of the their synthetic enzymes in PC12 cells are comparable to or higher than those found in rat adrenals. NGF-treatment of PC12 cells results in no change in the levels of catecholamines or of their synthetic enzymes when expressed on a per cell basis, but does result in a 4- to 6-fold decrease in levels when expressed on a per mg of protein basis. PC12 cells do not synthesize epinephrine and cannot be induced to do so by treatment with dexamethasone. The PC12 cell line should be a useful model system for neurobiological and neurochemical studies.
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            Autophagy in acute kidney injury.

            Autophagy is a conserved multistep pathway that degrades and recycles damaged organelles and macromolecules to maintain intracellular homeostasis. The autophagy pathway is upregulated under stress conditions including cell starvation, hypoxia, nutrient and growth-factor deprivation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidant injury, most of which are involved in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Recent studies demonstrate that basal autophagy in the kidney is vital for the normal homeostasis of the proximal tubules. Deletion of key autophagy proteins impaired renal function and increased p62 levels and oxidative stress. In models of AKI, autophagy deletion in proximal tubules worsened tubular injury and renal function, highlighting that autophagy is renoprotective in models of AKI. In addition to nonselective sequestration of autophagic cargo, autophagy can facilitate selective degradation of damaged organelles, particularly mitochondrial degradation through the process of mitophagy. Damaged mitochondria accumulate in autophagy-deficient kidneys of mice subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury, but the precise mechanisms of regulation of mitophagy in AKI are not yet elucidated. Recent progress in identifying the interplay of autophagy, apoptosis, and regulated necrosis has revived interest in examining shared pathways/molecules in this crosstalk during the pathogenesis of AKI. Autophagy and its associated pathways pose potentially unique targets for therapeutic interventions in AKI.
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              Autophagy in ischemic stroke

              Autophagy is a self-eating cellular catabolic pathway, through which long-lived proteins, damaged organelles and misfolded proteins are degraded and recycled for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and normal cellular functions. Autophagy plays an important homeostatic role in the regulation of cell survival. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is activated in various cell types in the brain such as neurons, glia cells, and brain microvascular cells upon ischemic stroke. However, the exact role and molecular mechanisms of autophagy process that is implicated in ischemic stroke have yet to be elucidated. This review aims to provide a comprehensive view of the regulation of autophagy in neurons, glia cells, and brain microvascular cells in response to ischemia stress. We also review the recent advance on the understanding of the involvement of autophagy in the pathological process during cerebral ischemic preconditioning, perconditioning and postconditioning. We propose a crosstalk between autophagy, necroptosis, and apoptosis that contribute to ischemic stroke. In addition, we discuss the interactions between autophagy and oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                09 April 2019
                : 13
                : 1135-1144
                Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, People’s Republic of China, juanfeng@ 123456cmu.edu.cn
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Juan Feng, Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 36 Sanhao Street, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 024 96615, Email juanfeng@ 123456cmu.edu.cn
                © 2019 Hou et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                curcumin,cerebral ischemia-reperfusion,autophagy,hypoxia inducible factor-1α


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