A study of the vegetation in a 71,42 ha fragment of Caatinga in Poço Verde, state of Sergipe, was carried out, and the occurrence of 170 species, 129 genera and 46 botanical families was recorded. Fabaceae (25 spp.); Euphorbiaceae (16 spp.); Solanaceae (nine spp.); Poaceae (eight spp.); Malvaceae (seven spp.); and Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae (six spp.) were the most represented families, corresponding to 55.8% of the sampled flora. The genera which represented greater floristic richness were: Croton (eight spp.), Solanum (six spp.), Senna and Mimosa (four spp.). We found 39 species of trees, 47 of shrubs, 15 of lianas and 69 of herbs. Among the species found in the studied area, 10.2% are considered endemic to the Caatinga. Compared to other areas of Caatinga, the studied area is characterized by a dry and dense forest which has suffered a medium impact due to plant extraction, being found today in a natural state of regeneration.