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      Softening due to Grain Boundary Cavity Formation and its Competition with Hardening in Helium Implanted Nanocrystalline Tungsten

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          Abstract

          The unique ability of grain boundaries to act as effective sinks for radiation damage plays a significant role in nanocrystalline materials due to their large interfacial area per unit volume. Leveraging this mechanism in the design of tungsten as a plasma-facing material provides a potential pathway for enhancing its radiation tolerance under fusion-relevant conditions. In this study, we explore the impact of defect microstructures on the mechanical behavior of helium ion implanted nanocrystalline tungsten through nanoindentation. Softening was apparent across all implantation temperatures and attributed to bubble/cavity loaded grain boundaries suppressing the activation barrier for the onset of plasticity via grain boundary mediated dislocation nucleation. An increase in fluence placed cavity induced grain boundary softening in competition with hardening from intragranular defect loop damage, thus signaling a new transition in the mechanical behavior of helium implanted nanocrystalline tungsten.

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis.

          For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jason.trelewicz@stonybrook.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                13 February 2018
                13 February 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2216 9681, GRID grid.36425.36, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, , Stony Brook University, ; Stony Brook, NY USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0428 3079, GRID grid.148313.c, Materials Science and Technology Division, , Los Alamos National Laboratory, ; Los Alamos, NM USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0020 7392, GRID grid.417824.c, Fusion Safety Program, , Idaho National Laboratory, ; Idaho Falls, ID USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1881 7391, GRID grid.6935.9, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, , Middle East Technical University, ; Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                20990
                10.1038/s41598-018-20990-1
                5811568
                29440652
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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