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      Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA-2) questionnaire in a non-clinical sample of Arabic-speaking adults


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          Interoception refers to processes through which the nervous system identifies, analyzes, and integrates the information generated by the physiological state of the body (e.g., from internal organs such as the stomach, heart, or lungs). Despite its potential interest for clinical research and its wide use globally, no Arabic adaptation and validation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA-2) questionnaire exists to date. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the MAIA-2 in a sample of Arabic-speaking community adults from Lebanon. We hypothesized that the Arabic version of the MAIA-2 would yield adequate internal consistency coefficients; the 8-factor structure model would show a good fit to our data, with measurement invariance and good convergent validity.


          The Arabic adaptation of the MAIA-2 was developed using the forward–backward translation method. A non-clinical sample of Arabic-speaking adults (n = 359, 59.9% females, mean age = 22.75 years (SD = 7.04)) took part of this validation study. To check if the model was adequate, several fit indices were calculated: the normed model chi-square (χ²/df), the Steiger-Lind root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI). Values ≤ 3 for χ²/df, and ≤ 0.08 for RMSEA, and 0.90 for CFI and TLI indicate good fit of the model to the data.


          Confirmatory Factor Analyses corroborated the validity of the original 8-factor structure of the MAIA-2 [χ 2/df = 1603.86/601 = 2.67, RMSEA = 0.068 (90% CI 0.064, 0.072), SRMR = 0.058, CFI = 0.903, TLI = 0.892]. Reliability estimates in our sample revealed good internal consistency, with McDonald’s ω coefficients for the subscales ranging from 0.86 to 0.93. Our analyses also revealed measurement invariance of the Arabic MAIA-2 for gender. No statistically significant difference between men and women in all dimensions, except for the not worrying and attention regulation subscales where men scored significantly higher than women. Finally, the Arabic MAIA-2 dimensions showed positive correlations with the intuitive eating dimension “Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues”, thus providing support for convergent validity.


          We contribute the literature by providing the first Arabic adaptation and validation of a measure assessing the multidimensional construct of self-reported interoception. The Arabic MAIA-2 demonstrated good psychometric properties. We thus preliminarily recommend its use to measure the interoceptive awareness construct among Arabic-speaking communities worldwide.

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                Author and article information

                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BioMed Central (London )
                9 August 2023
                9 August 2023
                : 23
                : 577
                [1 ]GRID grid.414302.0, ISNI 0000 0004 0622 0397, The Tunisian Center of Early Intervention in Psychosis, Department of psychiatry “Ibn Omrane”, , Razi hospital, ; 2010 Manouba, Tunisia
                [2 ]GRID grid.12574.35, ISNI 0000000122959819, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, , Tunis El Manar University, ; Tunis, Tunisia
                [3 ]GRID grid.411884.0, ISNI 0000 0004 1762 9788, College of Pharmacy, , Gulf Medical University, ; Ajman, United Arab Emirates
                [4 ]GRID grid.444421.3, ISNI 0000 0004 0417 6142, School of Pharmacy, , Lebanese International University, ; Beirut, Lebanon
                [5 ]GRID grid.18112.3b, ISNI 0000 0000 9884 2169, Faculty of Health Sciences, , Beirut Arab University, ; Tareek Al Jadida, Afeef Al Tiba, 1105 Beirut, Lebanon
                [6 ]GRID grid.444434.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2106 3658, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, , Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, ; P.O. Box 446, Jounieh, Lebanon
                [7 ]GRID grid.411323.6, ISNI 0000 0001 2324 5973, Social and Education Sciences Department, School of Arts and Sciences, , Lebanese American University, ; Jbeil, Lebanon
                [8 ]GRID grid.443337.4, ISNI 0000 0004 0608 1585, Psychology Department, College of Humanities, , Effat University, ; 21478 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                [9 ]GRID grid.411423.1, ISNI 0000 0004 0622 534X, Applied Science Research Center, , Applied Science Private University, ; Amman, Jordan
                [10 ]GRID grid.512933.f, ISNI 0000 0004 0451 7867, Research Department, , Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, ; Jal Eddib, Lebanon
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

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                : 25 December 2022
                : 31 July 2023
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                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                interoceptive awareness,interoception,maia-2,psychometric properties,arabic


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