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      Corticosteroids or immunosuppressants were not superior to supportive care in IgA nephropathy patients with mild proteinuria

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          Abstract

          Background:

          We aimed to evaluate the effect of immunosuppressant therapy for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) patients with mild proteinuria (<1 g/d).

          Methods:

          We recruited patients with biopsy-proven IgAN from 4 study centers. Patients were followed for more than 1 year or up to the study end point. Clinical indexes, renal pathological data, and treatment information were collected during the follow-up period. IgAN patients with mild proteinuria (<1 g/d at biopsy) were included. Patients were divided into a supportive care group (SC) and an immunosuppressant group (IT). Patients in the SC group received the optimal dose of renin angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi). Patients in the IT group received corticosteroids or immunosuppressant therapy plus RASi. Responses to therapy included complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), no response (NR), and end stage renal disease (ESRD). A 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or ESRD was the primary end point of this study.

          Results:

          295 patients (36.3% male and 63.7% female) were included in this study and were followed for 49.46 ± 24.35 months. We found a significant difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine protein, mesangial hypercellularity, segmental glomerulosclerosis, cellular or fibrocellular crescents, and glomerulosclerosis between the 2 treatment groups at baseline. At the final follow-up, 224 patients (75.9%) achieved CR, 7 patients (2.4%) achieved PR, 55 patients (18.6%) had NR, and 9 patients (3.1%) reached ESRD. However, no significant differences were observed between the SC and IT groups with respect to CR (76.4% vs 73.5%, P = .659), PR (2.0% vs 4.1%, P = .329), NR (18.3% vs 20.4%, P = .728), and ESRD (3.3% vs 2.0%, P = 1.000). Kidney survival rates were also comparable between the SC and IT groups (93.7% vs 94.1%, P = .808). We observed similar results after subgroup analysis according to chronic kidney disease stages or pathological manifestations. A multivariate model showed that segmental sclerosis (HR 9.55, 95% CI 1.04–88.16, P = .047) and glomerulosclerosis (HR 21.09, 95% CI 1.39–320.53, P = .028) were independent predictors of poor renal survival.

          Conclusions:

          Corticosteroids or immunosuppressants were not superior to supportive care in IgA nephropathy patients with mild proteinuria.

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          Most cited references15

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          Corticosteroid effectiveness in IgA nephropathy: long-term results of a randomized, controlled trial.

          Proteinuria plays a causal role in the progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). A previous controlled trial showed that steroids are effective in reducing proteinuria and preserving renal function in patients with IgAN. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of steroids in IgAN, examine the trend of proteinuria during follow-up (starting from the hypothesis that the degree of reduction in proteinuria may influence IgAN outcome), and evaluate how histologic scores can influence steroid response. A secondary analysis of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of 86 adult IgAN patients who were receiving supportive therapy or intravenous methylprednisolone plus oral prednisone for 6 mo was conducted. Ten-year renal survival was significantly better in the steroid than in the control group (97% versus 53%; log rank test P = 0.0003). In the 72 patients who did not reach the end point (doubling in baseline serum creatinine), median proteinuria significantly decreased (1.9 g/24 h at baseline, 1.1 g/24 h after 6 mo, and 0.6 g/24 h after a median of 7 yr). In the 14 progressive patients, proteinuria increased from a median of 1.7 g/24 h at baseline to 2.0 g/24 h after 6 mo and 3.3 g/24 h after a median of 5 yr. Steroids were effective in every histologic class. Cox multivariate regression analyses showed that, in addition to steroids, a low baseline histologic score, a reduction in proteinuria after 6 mo, and no increase in proteinuria during follow-up all were independent predictors of a beneficial outcome. Steroids significantly reduce proteinuria and protect against renal function deterioration in IgAN. The histologic picture and proteinuria during early and late follow-up improve the prediction of outcome, but considerable variability remains outside the model.
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            Corticosteroids in IgA Nephropathy: A Retrospective Analysis from the VALIGA Study.

            Current guidelines suggest treatment with corticosteroids (CS) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) when proteinuria is persistently ≥1 g/d despite 3-6 months of supportive care and when eGFR is >50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Whether the benefits of this treatment extend to patients with an eGFR≤50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), other levels of proteinuria, or different renal pathologic lesions remains unknown. We retrospectively studied 1147 patients with IgAN from the European Validation Study of the Oxford Classification of IgAN (VALIGA) cohort classified according to the Oxford-MEST classification and medication used, with details of duration but not dosing. Overall, 46% of patients received immunosuppression, of which 98% received CS. Treated individuals presented with greater clinical and pathologic risk factors of progression. They also received more antihypertensive medication, and a greater proportion received renin angiotensin system blockade (RASB) compared with individuals without immunosuppressive therapy. Immunosuppression was associated with a significant reduction in proteinuria, a slower rate of renal function decline, and greater renal survival. Using a propensity score, we matched 184 subjects who received CS and RASB to 184 patients with a similar risk profile of progression who received only RASB. Within this group, CS reduced proteinuria and the rate of renal function decline and increased renal survival. These benefits extended to those with an eGFR≤50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and the benefits increased proportionally with the level of proteinuria. Thus, CS reduced the risk of progression regardless of initial eGFR and in direct proportion to the extent of proteinuria in this cohort.
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              Long-term outcomes of IgA nephropathy presenting with minimal or no proteinuria.

              The long-term outcome of patients with IgA nephropathy who present with normal renal function, microscopic hematuria, and minimal or no proteinuria is not well described. Here, we studied 141 Caucasian patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy who had minor abnormalities at presentation and a median follow-up of 108 months. None of the patients received corticosteroids or immunosuppressants. We reviewed renal biopsies using the Oxford classification criteria. In this sample, 46 (32%) patients had mesangial proliferation, whereas endocapillary proliferation, focal glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial abnormalities were uncommon. Serum creatinine increases >50% and >100% were observed in five (3.5%) patients and one (0.7%) patient, respectively; no patients developed ESRD. After 10, 15, and 20 years, 96.7%, 91.9%, and 91.9% of patients maintained serum creatinine values less than a 50% increase, respectively. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, the presence of segmental glomerulosclerosis was the only factor that significantly associated with a >50% increase in serum creatinine. Clinical remission occurred in 53 (37.5%) patients after a median of 48 months. Proteinuria>0.5 and >1.0 g/24 h developed in 21 (14.9%) and 6 (4.2%) patients, respectively. Median proteinuria at the end of follow-up was 0.1 g/24 h, with 41 (29.1%) patients having no proteinuria. At presentation, 23 (16.3%) patients were hypertensive compared with 30 (21.3%) patients at the end of follow-up; 59 (41.8%) patients were treated with renin-angiotensin blockers because of hypertension or increasing proteinuria. In summary, the long-term prognosis for Caucasian patients with IgA nephropathy who present with minor urinary abnormalities and normal renal function is excellent.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                12 June 2020
                12 June 2020
                : 99
                : 24
                : e20513
                Affiliations
                [a ]Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, West China Hospital
                [b ]West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan
                [c ]Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, Guizhou
                [d ]The Third Hospital of Zigong City, Zigong, Sichuan
                [e ]People's Hospital of Mianzu, Mianzu, Sichuan, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Wei Qin, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China 610041 (e-mail: qinweihx@ 123456scu.edu.cn ).
                Article
                MD-D-19-08659 20513
                10.1097/MD.0000000000020513
                7302656
                32541473
                d5398a65-4204-4cc1-9303-d98c661d6ec7
                Copyright © 2020 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

                History
                : 04 November 2019
                : 03 April 2020
                : 27 April 2020
                Categories
                5200
                Research Article
                Clinical Trial/Experimental Study
                Custom metadata
                TRUE

                corticosteroids,iga nephropathy,immunosuppressive therapy,proteinuria,renal survival,supportive care

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