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      Short-term efficacy of intravitreal conbercept in treatment-naive patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          To evaluate the functional and morphological outcomes of intravitreal conbercept monotherapy in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).

          Materials and methods

          In this retrospective, observational case series study, we reviewed medical records of 48 eyes (48 patients) with naive PCV that were treated with a series of 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 0.5 mg of conbercept followed by as-needed injections (3+pro re nata). All patients completed at least 6 months of monthly follow-up. Changes in the best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, and indocyanine green angiography were retrospectively evaluated.

          Results

          At 6 months, the mean best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 0.89±0.35 (20/160 in Snellen equivalent) at baseline to 0.58±0.26 (Snellen equivalent of 20/80; P<0.001), and 60.42% (29/48) of eyes had an improvement of three lines of vision; the mean central retinal thickness significantly decreased from 333.56±171.04 μm at baseline to 187.65±54.46 μm ( P<0.001), and 93.75% (45/48) achieved a dry macula. At 3 months, 6 of 32 eyes (18.75%) showed partial regression of branching vascular network, 14 of 32 (43.75%) patients showed complete resolution of polyps. The mean number of injections was 3.4±0.9 through 6 months. No conbercept-related systemic or ocular adverse effects were observed.

          Conclusion

          Intravitreal injection of conbercept using “3+pro re nata” regimen significantly improved visual acuity and anatomical outcomes in treatment-naive patients with PCV.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Development of ranibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antigen binding fragment, as therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

          Angiogenesis is a key aspect of the wet form of age-related neovascular (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly population. Substantial evidence indicated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is a major mediator of angiogenesis and vascular leakage in wet AMD. VEGF-A is the prototype member of a gene family that includes also PlGF, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and the orf virus-encoded VEGF-E. Several isoforms of VEGF-A can be generated due to alternative mRNA splicing. Various VEGF inhibitors have been clinically developed. Among these, ranibizumab is a high affinity recombinant Fab that neutralizes all isoforms of VEGF-A. The article briefly reviews the biology of VEGF and then focuses on the path that led to clinical development of ranibizumab. The safety and efficacy of ranibizumab in the treatment of neovascular AMD have been evaluated in two large phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, controlled pivotal trials in different neovascular AMD patient populations. Combined, the trial results indicate that ranibizumab results not only in a slowing down of vision loss but also in a significant proportion of patients experiencing a clinically meaningful vision gain. The visual acuity benefit over control was observed regardless of CNV lesion type. Furthermore, the benefit was associated with a low rate of serious adverse events. Ranibizumab represents a novel therapy that, for the first time, appears to have the potential to enable many AMD patients to obtain a meaningful and sustained gain of vision. On June 30 2006, ranibizumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of wet AMD.
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            Clinical characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients.

            To clarify the clinical characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japanese patients. Retrospective, observational, consecutive case series. Two hundred and eighty-nine patients with neovascular AMD were examined. The authors classified the patients into three subtypes of neovascular AMD: polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), and typical AMD. One hundred and fifty-eight patients (54.7%) were diagnosed with PCV and 102 patients (35.3%) with typical AMD. RAP was observed in 13 patients (4.5%). In 16 patients (5.5%), one eye had PCV and the other eye had typical AMD. Most patients with PCV and typical AMD had unilateral disease (81.6% and 94.1%, respectively) with a male preponderance (77.8% and 71.6%, respectively). Nine of 13 patients with RAP were female (69.2%). Patients with RAP were older (mean, 80.3 years for men and 75.3 years for women) than patients with other subtypes. Serous and hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment developed in 69 patients (43.7%) with PCV, 22 patients (21.6%) with typical AMD, and nine patients (69.2%) with RAP. In the patients with unilateral disease in each subtype, large drusen in the unaffected eye were seen in 24.0% with PCV, 30.2% with typical AMD, and 77.8% with RAP. Neovascular AMD in Japanese patients has different demographic features compared with that in White patients. In Japanese patients, there is a preponderance of PCV, male gender, unilaterality, and absence of drusen in the second eye, with the exception of RAP.
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              Age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Asians.

              Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in elderly people globally. It is estimated that there will be more Asians with AMD than the rest of the world combined by 2050. In Asian populations, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a common subtype of exudative AMD, while choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD (CNV-AMD) is the typical subtype in Western populations. The two subtypes share many common clinical features and risk factors, but also have different epidemiological and clinical characteristics, natural history and treatment outcomes that point to distinct pathophysiological processes. Recent research in the fields of genetics, proteomics and imaging has provided further clarification of differences between PCV and CNV-AMD. Importantly, these differences have manifested as disparity in response to intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment between PCV and CNV-AMD, emphasizing the need for accurate diagnosis of PCV and in distinguishing PCV from CNV-AMD, particularly in Asian patients. Current clinical trials of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy and photodynamic therapy will provide clearer perspectives of evidence-based management of PCV and may lead to paradigm shifts in therapeutic strategies away from those currently employed in the treatment of CNV-AMD. Further research is needed to clarify the relative contribution of specific pathways in inflammation, complement activation, extracellular matrix dysregulation, lipid metabolism and angiogenesis to the pathogenesis of PCV. Findings from this research, together with improved diagnostic technology and new therapeutics, will facilitate more optimal management of Asian AMD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                19 February 2018
                : 12
                : 339-345
                Affiliations
                State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Feng Wen, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 South Xianlie Road, Guangzhou 510060, China, Tel +86 20 8733 0292, Fax +86 20 8733 3271, Email wenfeng208@ 123456foxmail.com
                Article
                dddt-12-339
                10.2147/DDDT.S158368
                5823069
                © 2018 Peng et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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