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      Tau Seeding Mouse Models with Patient Brain-Derived Aggregates

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          Abstract

          Tauopathies are a heterogeneous class of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular inclusions of aggregated tau proteins. Tau aggregates in different tauopathies have distinct structural features and can be found in different cell types. Transgenic animal models overexpressing human tau have been used for over two decades in the research of tau pathology. However, these models poorly recapitulate the heterogeneity of tauopathies found in human brains. Recent findings demonstrate that injection of purified tau aggregates from the brains of human tauopathy patients recapitulates both the structural features and cell-type specificity of the tau pathology of the donor tauopathy. These models may therefore have unique translational value in the study of functional consequences of tau pathology, tau-based diagnostics, and tau targeting therapeutics. This review provides an update of the literature relating to seeding-based tauopathy and their potential applications.

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          Most cited references 179

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          Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes

           H Braak,  E Braak (1991)
          Eighty-three brains obtained at autopsy from nondemented and demented individuals were examined for extracellular amyloid deposits and intraneuronal neurofibrillary changes. The distribution pattern and packing density of amyloid deposits turned out to be of limited significance for differentiation of neuropathological stages. Neurofibrillary changes occurred in the form of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads. The distribution of neuritic plaques varied widely not only within architectonic units but also from one individual to another. Neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, in contrast, exhibited a characteristic distribution pattern permitting the differentiation of six stages. The first two stages were characterized by an either mild or severe alteration of the transentorhinal layer Pre-alpha (transentorhinal stages I-II). The two forms of limbic stages (stages III-IV) were marked by a conspicuous affection of layer Pre-alpha in both transentorhinal region and proper entorhinal cortex. In addition, there was mild involvement of the first Ammon's horn sector. The hallmark of the two isocortical stages (stages V-VI) was the destruction of virtually all isocortical association areas. The investigation showed that recognition of the six stages required qualitative evaluation of only a few key preparations.
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            Neurofibrillary tangles but not senile plaques parallel duration and severity of Alzheimer's disease.

            We studied the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and senile plaques (SPs) in 10 Alzheimer's disease patients who had been examined during life. We counted NFTs and SPs in 13 cytoarchitectural regions representing limbic, primary sensory, and association cortices, and in subcortical neurotransmitter-specific areas. The degree of neuropathologic change was compared with the severity of dementia, as assessed by the Blessed Dementia Scale and duration of illness. We found that (1) the severity of dementia was positively related to the number of NFTs in neocortex, but not to the degree of SP deposition; (2) NFTs accumulate in a consistent pattern reflecting hierarchic vulnerability of individual cytoarchitectural fields; (3) NFTs appeared in the entorhinal cortex, CA1/subiculum field of the hippocampal formation, and the amygdala early in the disease process; and (4) the degree of SP deposition was also related to a hierarchic vulnerability of certain brain areas to accumulate SPs, but the pattern of SP distribution was different from that of NFT.
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              TREM2 variants in Alzheimer's disease.

              Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in TREM2, encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein, have previously been associated with an autosomal recessive form of early-onset dementia. We used genome, exome, and Sanger sequencing to analyze the genetic variability in TREM2 in a series of 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1107 controls (the discovery set). We then performed a meta-analysis on imputed data for the TREM2 variant rs75932628 (predicted to cause a R47H substitution) from three genomewide association studies of Alzheimer's disease and tested for the association of the variant with disease. We genotyped the R47H variant in an additional 1887 cases and 4061 controls. We then assayed the expression of TREM2 across different regions of the human brain and identified genes that are differentially expressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and in control mice. We found significantly more variants in exon 2 of TREM2 in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in controls in the discovery set (P=0.02). There were 22 variant alleles in 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 5 variant alleles in 1107 controls (P<0.001). The most commonly associated variant, rs75932628 (encoding R47H), showed highly significant association with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.001). Meta-analysis of rs75932628 genotypes imputed from genomewide association studies confirmed this association (P=0.002), as did direct genotyping of an additional series of 1887 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 4061 controls (P<0.001). Trem2 expression differed between control mice and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Heterozygous rare variants in TREM2 are associated with a significant increase in the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (Funded by Alzheimer's Research UK and others.).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                07 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 22
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Queen Square, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK; aiko.robert.20@ 123456ucl.ac.uk (A.R.); michael.scholl@ 123456neuro.gu.se (M.S.)
                [2 ]Wallenberg Centre for Molecular and Translational Medicine and the Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University of Gothenburg, 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University of Gothenburg, 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden
                [4 ]Sylics (Synaptologics B.V.), 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: thomas.vogels@ 123456gu.se
                Article
                ijms-22-06132
                10.3390/ijms22116132
                8201271
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                tau, tauopathy, alzheimer’s disease, animal model, neurodegeneration, seeding

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