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      The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection

      1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 4 , *

      Nutrients

      MDPI

      probiotics, rotavirus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus

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          Abstract

          A total of 57 infants hospitalized with rotavirus disease were included in this study. The children were randomly divided into the study’s two treatment groups: three days of the oral administration of (i) a probiotics formula containing both Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 ( N = 28); or (ii) a placebo (probiotic-free skim milk, N = 29) and the standard therapy for diarrhea. There were no differences in age, sex, or blood characteristics between the two groups. When the 57 cases completed the protocol, the duration of the patients’ diarrhea was significantly shorter in the probiotics group (4.38 ± 1.29, N = 28) than the placebo group (5.61 ± 1.23, N = 29), with a p-value of 0.001. Symptoms such as duration of fever ( p = 0.119), frequency of diarrhea ( p = 0.119), and frequency of vomiting ( p = 0.331) tended to be ameliorated by the probiotic treatment; however, differences were not statistically significant between the two groups. There were no serious, adverse events and no differences in the frequency of adverse events in both groups.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review

          Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5–13 pathogens, p<0·0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000–295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000–146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000–113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000–76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world.
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            Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases

            Probiotics and synbiotics are used to treat chronic diseases, principally due to their role in immune system modulation and the anti-inflammatory response. The present study reviewed the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on intestinal chronic diseases in in vitro, animal, and human studies, particularly in randomized clinical trials. The selected probiotics exhibit in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. Probiotic strains and cell-free supernatants reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines via action that is principally mediated by toll-like receptors. Probiotic administration improved the clinical symptoms, histological alterations, and mucus production in most of the evaluated animal studies, but some results suggest that caution should be taken when administering these agents in the relapse stages of IBD. In addition, no effects on chronic enteropathies were reported. Probiotic supplementation appears to be potentially well tolerated, effective, and safe in patients with IBD, in both CD and UC. Indeed, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium longum 536 improved the clinical symptoms in patients with mild to moderate active UC. Although it has been proposed that probiotics can provide benefits in certain conditions, the risks and benefits should be carefully assessed before initiating any therapy in patients with IBD. For this reason, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism by which probiotics and synbiotics affect these diseases.
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              Bacterial, viral and parasitic enteric pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in hospitalized children from northern Jordan.

              To determine the etiology of acute diarrhea in Jordanian children under 5 years of age, we examined stool samples from 265 children admitted to the pediatric ward at Princess Rahma Hospital for Children, Irbid, Jordan, for parasites, rotavirus and enteric bacteria. Using both traditional and molecular diagnostic techniques, we detected enteropathogens in 66.4% of patients with diarrhea. A single enteric pathogen was detected in 50.9% of the children, and multiple pathogens were detected in 15.5%. The prevalence of enteropathogens identified was as follows: rotavirus (32.5%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (12.8%), enteroaggregative E. coli (10.2), enterotoxigenic E. coli (5.7%), Shigella spp. (4.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (4.9%), Salmonella spp. (4.5%), Campylobacter jejuni/coli (1.5%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.5%), enteroinvasive E. coli (1.5%), eae-, Ehly-positive E. coli (0.8%), Giardia lamblia (0. 8%) and Yersinia enterocolitica (0.4%). No Vibrio cholerae, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, microsporidia, adenovirus or small round virus were detected. Findings from this study demonstrate that rotavirus and several types of diarrheagenic E. coli, which are not screened for during routine examinations of stool samples in public health laboratories, were the most frequently detected enteropathogens in these children. Our findings highlight the value of using a combination of traditional and molecular techniques in the diagnosis of diarrheal disease in this population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                16 August 2017
                August 2017
                : 9
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hotel Culinary Arts, Yeonsung University, Anyang 430-749, Korea; mspark@ 123456yeonsung.ac.kr
                [2 ]Research Center, BIFIDO Co. Ltd., Hongcheon 250-804, Korea; 531083@ 123456hanmail.net
                [3 ]Fermentation Science Program, School of Agribusiness and Agriscience, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA; Seockmo.Ku@ 123456mtsu.edu
                [4 ]Department of Food and Nutrition, Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: geji@ 123456snu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-880-6282
                Article
                nutrients-09-00887
                10.3390/nu9080887
                5579680
                28813007
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Short Note

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, rotavirus, probiotics

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