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Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?

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      The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide– co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide– co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×10 6 cells/cm 2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×10 6ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×10 6ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide– co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold.

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      Most cited references 22

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      The identification of cells capable of neuronal differentiation has great potential for cellular therapies. We examined whether murine and human adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells can be induced to undergo neuronal differentiation. We isolated ADAS cells from the adipose tissue of adult BalbC mice or from human liposuction tissue and induced neuronal differentiation with valproic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, insulin, and hydrocortisone. As early as 1-3 h after neuronal induction, the phenotype of ADAS cells changed towards neuronal morphology. Following neuronal induction, muADAS cells displayed immunocytochemical staining for GFAP, nestin and NeuN and huADAS cells displayed staining for intermediate filament M, nestin, and NeuN. Following neuronal induction of murine and human ADAS cells, Western blot analysis confirmed GFAP, nestin, and NeuN protein expression. Pretreatment with EGF and basic FGF augmented the neuronal differentiation of huADAS cells. The neuronal differentiation of stromal cells from adipose tissue has broad biological and clinical implications. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
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        Fabrication and characterization of six electrospun poly(alpha-hydroxy ester)-based fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

        The most common synthetic biodegradable polymers being investigated for tissue engineering applications are FDA approved, clinically used poly(alpha-hydroxy esters). To better assess the applicability of the electrospinning technology for scaffold fabrication, six commonly used poly(alpha-hydroxy esters) were used to prepare electrospun fibrous scaffolds, and their physical and biological properties were also characterized. Our results suggest that specific, optimized fabrication parameters are required for each polymer to produce scaffolds that consist of uniform structures morphologically similar to native extracellular matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a highly porous, three-dimensional structure for all scaffolds, with average fiber diameter ranging from 300nm to 1.5microm, depending on the polymer type used. The poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid 50:50) (PLGA5050) fibrous structures were mechanically stiffest, whereas the poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were most compliant. Upon incubation in physiological solution, severe structural destruction due to polymer degradation was found in the PGA, poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA), PLGA5050, and poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid 85:15) (PLGA8515) fibrous scaffolds, whereas PLLA and PCL fibrous scaffolds maintained a robust scaffold structure during the same time period, based on macroscopic and SEM observations. In addition, PLLA scaffolds supported the highest rate of proliferation of seeded cells (chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) than other polymeric scaffolds. Our findings showed that PLLA and PCL based fibrous scaffolds exhibited the most optimal structural integrity and supported desirable cellular response in culture, suggesting that such scaffolds may be promising candidate biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.
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          Composition and biomechanical properties of the bladder acellular matrix graft: comparative analysis in rat, pig and human.

           R Dahiya,  T Lue,  Tanya Dahms (1998)
          To compare the composition and mechanical properties of the newly developed bladder acellular matrix graft (BAMG) with the normal urinary bladder in rat, pig and human. Rat, pig and human urinary bladders were harvested and divided into control and experimental groups. For the latter, BAMGs were prepared, and light and transmission electron microscopic studies performed. Strips from the normal bladders and the BAMGs (10 in each group) were tested under tension, and the ultimate tensile strength, maximum strain, and elastic modulus were determined from stress/strain curves. Both types I and III collagen, as well as elastic fibres, were observed as major components of the matrix scaffold. There were more collagen type I fibres in the rat than in the pig and human BAMGs, whereas the pig, and particularly the human, both showed higher levels of type III collagen and elastic fibres. These different matrix scaffold patterns were confirmed by electron microscopy. Results from biomechanical testing showed no significant differences for strength, strain or elastic modulus between BAMG and control bladder strips, except in the rat where the maximum strain values were significantly lower. There are variations in the acellular matrix structure with similar biomechanical properties between the BAMG and the normal urinary bladder in three different species. These results may underscore the potential of the BAMG. Furthermore, this in vitro model provides a suitable method to study the mechanical properties of the urinary bladder and may serve as a diagnostic tool for various investigations.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Chair of Regenerative Medicine, Department of Tissue Engineering, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Medical College in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
            [2 ]Department of Theory of Continuous Media, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
            [3 ]Department of Mechanics and Physics of Fluids, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
            [4 ]Department of Clinical Pathomorphology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Medical College in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
            [5 ]Department of Tumor Pathology, Center of Oncology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
            [6 ]Department of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Medical College in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
            [7 ]Electron Microscopy Platform, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
            [8 ]Department of Intelligent Technologies, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
            [9 ]Department of Urology, Nicolaus Copernicus Hospital, Torun, Poland
            Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, United States of America
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: MP AJ JA. Performed the experiments: MP AJ JA KW MR LB TK PN TC MN RD MB MFB SK GM. Analyzed the data: MP AJ JA TK TAK MFB AM TD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TK PN TC TAK. Wrote the paper: MP TK TD.

            Role: Editor
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            27 August 2014
            : 9
            : 8
            25162451 4146509 PONE-D-14-01719 10.1371/journal.pone.0105295

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Pages: 12
            The authors have no support or funding to report.
            Research Article
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Tissue Engineering
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Bladder and Ureteric Disorders



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