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      Benefits of Candesartan on Arterial and Renal Damage of Non-Diabetic Hypertensive Patients Treated with Calcium Channel Blockers

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          Background/Aim: Although long-term, intensive blood pressure (BP) control with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) reduced arterial stiffness and renal damage of hypertensive patients, combination therapy with antihypertensive drugs is frequently needed to maintain the intensive BP control. The present study was conducted to examine add-on benefits of candesartan therapy on hypertensive patients treated with CCBs for at least 12 months. Methods: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), urinary albumin excretion (UAE), intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were determined in 50 non-diabetic hypertensive patients treated with CCBs before and 12 months after the start of therapy with candesartan or placebo. Results: Candesartan significantly decreased clinic BP and tended to decrease ambulatory BP, but the decreases were similar to those in the placebo group except nocturnal BP decrease, which was significantly enhanced by candesartan. Add-on candesartan significantly decreased PWV and UAE compared to placebo, but IMT was unchanged with candesartan or placebo. The decrease in clinic BP or nocturnal BP decrease did not contribute to the improvement of PWV or UAE. Conclusion: Add-on candesartan functionally improved the stiffened arteries of hypertensive patients treated with CCBs by the end of 12 months of treatment independently of its effects on BPs.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Validity, reproducibility, and clinical significance of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement.

          The present study was conducted to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurements and to examine the alteration of baPWV in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Simultaneous recordings of baPWV by a simple, noninvasive method and aortic pulse wave velosity (PWV) using a catheter tip with pressure manometer were performed in 41 patients with CAD, vasospastic angina, or cardiomyopathy. In 32 subjects (15 controls and 17 patients with CAD), baPWV was recorded independently by two observers in a random manner. In 55 subjects (14 controls and 41 patients with CAD), baPWV was recorded twice by a single observer on different days. baPWV were compared among 172 patients with CAD (aged 62 +/- 8 years); 655 age-matched patients without CAD but with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia; and 595 age-matched healthy subjects without these risk factors. baPWV correlated well with aortic PWV (r=0.87, p<0.01). Pearson's correlation coefficients of interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility were r=0.98 and r=0.87, respectively. The corresponding coefficients of variation were 8.4% and 10.0%. baPWV were significantly higher in CAD patients than in non-CAD patients with risk factors, for both genders (p<0.01). In addition, baPWV were higher in non-CAD patients with risk factors than in healthy subjects without risk factors. Thus, the validity and reproducibility of baPWV measurements are considerably high, and this method seems to be an acceptable marker reflecting vascular damages. baPWV measured by this simple, noninvasive method is suitable for screening vascular damages in a large population.
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            Low doses of losartan and trandolapril improve arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients.

            Hemodialysis patients have uremic dyslipidemia, represented by elevated serum intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C) levels, and an increased cardiovascular mortality rate. This study was performed to determine the low-dose effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril on pulse wave velocity (PWV), which predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Serum lipid levels and PWV were monitored for 12 months in 64 hemodialysis patients who were administered low doses of losartan or trandolapril or a placebo. At the start of the study, there were no differences in patient characteristics among the 3 groups. PWV tended to increase in the placebo group during the 12-month study period, but decreased significantly in the losartan and trandolapril groups, and decreases in PWV were similar in the losartan and trandolapril groups. There were no changes in blood pressure, hematocrit, erythropoietin dose, ankle-brachial index, serum lipid levels, serum 8-isoprostane levels, or serum C-reactive protein levels during the 12-month study period, but there was an increase in serum triglyceride levels in the losartan group and a decrease in serum IDL-C levels in the losartan and trandolapril groups. In hemodialysis patients, trandolapril is as effective as losartan in decreasing PWV independent of its depressor effect and in suppressing elevated IDL-C levels. Long-term blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may have a beneficial effect on the acceleration of atherosclerosis and uremic dyslipidemia.
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              Reduction in arterial stiffness with angiotensin II antagonist is comparable with and additive to ACE inhibition.

               Azra Mahmud,  J Feely (2002)
              We measured the effects of angiotensin II blockade on arterial stiffness, augmentation index (AI%), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and blood pressure (BP) in 12 hypertensive patients (mean 49 +/- 11 years) in a 4-week, randomized, cross-over study comparing valsartan 160 mg/day with captopril 100 mg/day, with a 2-week washout period. Subsequently both therapies were combined. Reductions in PWV and AI% remained significant when corrected for BP. Combined therapy reduced PWV and AI% (P < .05) more than monotherapy, even when corrected for BP. The study shows that angiotensin receptor antagonists reduce arterial stiffness in hypertension comparable with and possibly additive to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 462-468
                Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                96581 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:462–468
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 20, Pages: 7
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/96581
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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