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      Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks

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          Scaling up MIMO: Opportunities and Challenges with Very Large Arrays

          This paper surveys recent advances in the area of very large MIMO systems. With very large MIMO, we think of systems that use antenna arrays with an order of magnitude more elements than in systems being built today, say a hundred antennas or more. Very large MIMO entails an unprecedented number of antennas simultaneously serving a much smaller number of terminals. The disparity in number emerges as a desirable operating condition and a practical one as well. The number of terminals that can be simultaneously served is limited, not by the number of antennas, but rather by our inability to acquire channel-state information for an unlimited number of terminals. Larger numbers of terminals can always be accommodated by combining very large MIMO technology with conventional time- and frequency-division multiplexing via OFDM. Very large MIMO arrays is a new research field both in communication theory, propagation, and electronics and represents a paradigm shift in the way of thinking both with regards to theory, systems and implementation. The ultimate vision of very large MIMO systems is that the antenna array would consist of small active antenna units, plugged into an (optical) fieldbus.
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            Femtocell Networks: A Survey

             ,  ,   (2008)
            The surest way to increase the system capacity of a wireless link is by getting the transmitter and receiver closer to each other, which creates the dual benefits of higher quality links and more spatial reuse. In a network with nomadic users, this inevitably involves deploying more infrastructure, typically in the form of microcells, hotspots, distributed antennas, or relays. A less expensive alternative is the recent concept of femtocells, also called home base-stations, which are data access points installed by home users get better indoor voice and data coverage. In this article, we overview the technical and business arguments for femtocells, and describe the state-of-the-art on each front. We also describe the technical challenges facing femtocell networks, and give some preliminary ideas for how to overcome them.
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              Spatial Modulation for Generalized MIMO: Challenges, Opportunities, and Implementation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IEEE Communications Magazine
                IEEE Commun. Mag.
                Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
                0163-6804
                February 2014
                February 2014
                : 52
                : 2
                : 122-130
                Article
                10.1109/MCOM.2014.6736752
                © 2014
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