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Black phosphorus as a new lubricant

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      In recent years, a new 2D-layered material—black phosphorus (BP)—has been a rising star after the era of graphene owing to its high charge carrier mobility, tunable direct bandgap and unique in-plane anisotropic structure. With the development of the synthesis and modification methods of BP, its extensive applications, e.g., transistors, batteries and optoelectronics have emerged. In order to explore its full potential, research into the tribological properties of BP 2D-layered materials such as lubrication additives and fillers in self-lubricating composite materials would be not only of high scientific value but also of practical significance. In this work, recent advances on the friction and lubrication properties of BP nanosheets made by our group, including the micro-friction properties, the lubrication properties of BP nanosheets as water-based and oil-based lubrication additives, and the friction and wear of BP/PVDF composites will be presented. Finally, the future challenges and opportunities in the use of BP materials as lubricants will be discussed.

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      Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

      The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
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        Two-dimensional atomic crystals

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          Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility.

          We introduce the 2D counterpart of layered black phosphorus, which we call phosphorene, as an unexplored p-type semiconducting material. Same as graphene and MoS2, single-layer phosphorene is flexible and can be mechanically exfoliated. We find phosphorene to be stable and, unlike graphene, to have an inherent, direct, and appreciable band gap. Our ab initio calculations indicate that the band gap is direct, depends on the number of layers and the in-layer strain, and is significantly larger than the bulk value of 0.31-0.36 eV. The observed photoluminescence peak of single-layer phosphorene in the visible optical range confirms that the band gap is larger than that of the bulk system. Our transport studies indicate a hole mobility that reflects the structural anisotropy of phosphorene and complements n-type MoS2. At room temperature, our few-layer phosphorene field-effect transistors with 1.0 μm channel length display a high on-current of 194 mA/mm, a high hole field-effect mobility of 286 cm(2)/V·s, and an on/off ratio of up to 10(4). We demonstrate the possibility of phosphorene integration by constructing a 2D CMOS inverter consisting of phosphorene PMOS and MoS2 NMOS transistors.

            Author and article information

            State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
            Author notes
            * Corresponding authors: Jianbin LUO, E-mail: luojb@

            Wei WANG. He received the Ph.D. degree in Materials Processing Engineering from Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China, in 2015. After a two-year post-doctoral  work  at  State  Key Laboratory of Tribology of Tsinghua University, he is currently an associate professor from Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology. Dr. Wang has published more than 10 papers indexed by SCI as the first author. His major research areas include lubrication in material processing and nano-lubrication.

            Guoxin XIE. He received his Ph.D. degree at Tsinghua University, China, in 2010, majoring in Mechanical Engineering. After that, he spent two years at State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, China for postdoctoral research. From 2012 to 2014, he worked at Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, for another two years’ post-doctoral research. Since 2014, he has worked at Tsinghua University as an associate Professor. His research interests include intelligent self-lubrication, electric contact lubrication, etc. He has published more than 50 referred papers in international journals. He won several important academic awards, such as Chinese Thousands of Young Talents, the Excellent Doctoral Dissertation Award of China, and Ragnar Holm Plaque from KTH, Sweden.

            Jianbin LUO. He received his BEng degree from Northeastern University in 1982, and got his MEng degree from Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology in 1988. In 1994, he received his PhD degree from Tsinghua University and then joined the faculty of Tsinghua University. Prof. Jianbin Luo is an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a Yangtze River Scholar Distinguished Professor of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He was awarded the STLE International Award (2013), the Chinese National Technology Progress Prize (2008), the Chinese National Natural Science Prize (2001), and the Chinese National Invention Prize (1996). Prof. Luo has been engaged in the research of thin film lubrication and tribology in nanomanufacturing. He was invited as a keynote or plenary speaker for 20 times on the international conferences.

            Tsinghua Science and Technology
            Tsinghua University Press (Xueyuan Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China )
            05 March 2018
            : 06
            : 01
            : 116-142 (pp. )

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit

            Figures: 36, Tables: 1, References: 82, Pages: 27
            Research Article


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