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      Black phosphorus as a new lubricant


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          In recent years, a new 2D-layered material—black phosphorus (BP)—has been a rising star after the era of graphene owing to its high charge carrier mobility, tunable direct bandgap and unique in-plane anisotropic structure. With the development of the synthesis and modification methods of BP, its extensive applications, e.g., transistors, batteries and optoelectronics have emerged. In order to explore its full potential, research into the tribological properties of BP 2D-layered materials such as lubrication additives and fillers in self-lubricating composite materials would be not only of high scientific value but also of practical significance. In this work, recent advances on the friction and lubrication properties of BP nanosheets made by our group, including the micro-friction properties, the lubrication properties of BP nanosheets as water-based and oil-based lubrication additives, and the friction and wear of BP/PVDF composites will be presented. Finally, the future challenges and opportunities in the use of BP materials as lubricants will be discussed.

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          Two-dimensional material nanophotonics

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            A phosphorene-graphene hybrid material as a high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries.

            Sodium-ion batteries have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries because sodium sources do not present the geopolitical issues that lithium sources might. Although recent reports on cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries have demonstrated performances comparable to their lithium-ion counterparts, the major scientific challenge for a competitive sodium-ion battery technology is to develop viable anode materials. Here we show that a hybrid material made out of a few phosphorene layers sandwiched between graphene layers shows a specific capacity of 2,440 mA h g(-1) (calculated using the mass of phosphorus only) at a current density of 0.05 A g(-1) and an 83% capacity retention after 100 cycles while operating between 0 and 1.5 V. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction techniques, we explain the large capacity of our anode through a dual mechanism of intercalation of sodium ions along the x axis of the phosphorene layers followed by the formation of a Na3P alloy. The presence of graphene layers in the hybrid material works as a mechanical backbone and an electrical highway, ensuring that a suitable elastic buffer space accommodates the anisotropic expansion of phosphorene layers along the y and z axial directions for stable cycling operation.
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              Transition metal dichalcogenides and beyond: synthesis, properties, and applications of single- and few-layer nanosheets.

              CONSPECTUS: In the wake of the discovery of the remarkable electronic and physical properties of graphene, a vibrant research area on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has emerged during the past decade. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) represent an alternative group of 2D layered materials that differ from the semimetallic character of graphene. They exhibit diverse properties that depend on their composition and can be semiconductors (e.g., MoS2, WS2), semimetals (e.g., WTe2, TiSe2), true metals (e.g., NbS2, VSe2), and superconductors (e.g., NbSe2, TaS2). The properties of TMDs can also be tailored according to the crystalline structure and the number and stacking sequence of layers in their crystals and thin films. For example, 2H-MoS2 is semiconducting, whereas 1T-MoS2 is metallic. Bulk 2H-MoS2 possesses an indirect band gap, but when 2H-MoS2 is exfoliated into monolayers, it exhibits direct electronic and optical band gaps, which leads to enhanced photoluminescence. Therefore, it is important to learn to control the growth of 2D TMD structures in order to exploit their properties in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, sensing, memory devices, and other applications. In this Account, we first introduce the history and structural basics of TMDs. We then briefly introduce the Raman fingerprints of TMDs of different layer numbers. Then, we summarize our progress on the controlled synthesis of 2D layered materials using wet chemical approaches, chemical exfoliation, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). It is now possible to control the number of layers when synthesizing these materials, and novel van der Waals heterostructures (e.g., MoS2/graphene, WSe2/graphene, hBN/graphene) have recently been successfully assembled. Finally, the unique optical, electrical, photovoltaic, and catalytic properties of few-layered TMDs are summarized and discussed. In particular, their enhanced photoluminescence (PL), photosensing, photovoltaic conversion, and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysis are discussed in detail. Finally, challenges along each direction are described. For instance, how to grow perfect single crystalline monolayer TMDs without the presence of grain boundaries and dislocations is still an open question. Moreover, the morphology and crystal structure control of few-layered TMDs still requires further research. For wet chemical approaches and chemical exfoliation methods, it is still a significant challenge to control the lateral growth of TMDs without expansion in the c-axis direction. In fact, there is plenty of room in the 2D world beyond graphene. We envisage that with increasing progress in the controlled synthesis of these systems the unusual properties of mono- and few-layered TMDs and TMD heterostructures will be unveiled.

                Author and article information

                Tsinghua Science and Technology
                Tsinghua University Press (Xueyuan Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China )
                05 March 2018
                : 06
                : 01
                : 116-142 (pp. )
                [1]State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
                Author notes
                * Corresponding authors: Jianbin LUO, E-mail: luojb@ 123456tsinghua.edu.cn

                Wei WANG. He received the Ph.D. degree in Materials Processing Engineering from Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China, in 2015. After a two-year post-doctoral  work  at  State  Key Laboratory of Tribology of Tsinghua University, he is currently an associate professor from Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology. Dr. Wang has published more than 10 papers indexed by SCI as the first author. His major research areas include lubrication in material processing and nano-lubrication.

                Guoxin XIE. He received his Ph.D. degree at Tsinghua University, China, in 2010, majoring in Mechanical Engineering. After that, he spent two years at State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, China for postdoctoral research. From 2012 to 2014, he worked at Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, for another two years’ post-doctoral research. Since 2014, he has worked at Tsinghua University as an associate Professor. His research interests include intelligent self-lubrication, electric contact lubrication, etc. He has published more than 50 referred papers in international journals. He won several important academic awards, such as Chinese Thousands of Young Talents, the Excellent Doctoral Dissertation Award of China, and Ragnar Holm Plaque from KTH, Sweden.

                Jianbin LUO. He received his BEng degree from Northeastern University in 1982, and got his MEng degree from Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology in 1988. In 1994, he received his PhD degree from Tsinghua University and then joined the faculty of Tsinghua University. Prof. Jianbin Luo is an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a Yangtze River Scholar Distinguished Professor of Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He was awarded the STLE International Award (2013), the Chinese National Technology Progress Prize (2008), the Chinese National Natural Science Prize (2001), and the Chinese National Invention Prize (1996). Prof. Luo has been engaged in the research of thin film lubrication and tribology in nanomanufacturing. He was invited as a keynote or plenary speaker for 20 times on the international conferences.


                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 36, Tables: 1, References: 82, Pages: 27
                Research Article

                Materials technology,Materials properties,Thin films & surfaces,Mechanical engineering
                friction,lubricant additive,self-lubricating composite materials,black phosphorus,two-dimensional (2D) material


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