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      Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Insecta): richness of species and distribution in Brazil Translated title: Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Insecta): riqueza de espécies e distribuição no Brasil

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          Abstract

          Abstract: Most Neotropical species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) have been described from Brazil, but a list of species with occurrence in the country has never been published. Little is known about their distribution and richness in the Brazilian phytogeographic domains. Additionally, a list of host plant species has never been gathered. The present study aims to fill these knowledge gaps and provides an overview of this family in Brazil. For this, data were obtained mainly from the literature, but also from the Cecidomyiidae collection of Museu Nacional and two herbaria (RB and R). Based on the site "Flora do Brasil 2020", botanical names were updated and plant species origin and distribution were verified. A total of 265 gall midge species have been recorded in Brazil, most from the Atlantic Forest (183), followed by Cerrado (60), and Amazon Forest (29). The other phytogeographic domains shelter from five to ten species. Phytophagous gall midges occur on 128 plant species of 52 families, almost all native, being 43 endemic to Brazil (21 endemic to Atlantic Forest, five to Cerrado, and one to Amazon). Although, the taxonomical knowledge is focused on the Atlantic Forest, each domain has its own fauna composition and these informations can be useful for environmental conservational purposes. About 58% of the Brazilian fauna are known only from the type-locality. In order to fill these gaps, it is necessary and important to collect in uninvestigated areas.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo: A maioria das espécies neotropicais de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) foi descrita do Brasil, mas uma lista das espécies com ocorrência no país nunca foi publicada. Pouco se sabe sobre sua distribuição e riqueza nos domínios fitogeográficos brasileiros. Adicionalmente, uma lista das espécies de plantas hospedeiras nunca foi elaborada. O presente estudo visa preencher estas lacunas de informação e fornecer um panorama geral desta família no Brasil. Para tal, dados foram obtidos principalmente da literatura, mas também da coleção de Cecidomyiidae do Museu Nacional e de dois herbários (RB e R). Com base no site "Flora do Brasil 2020", os nomes botânicos foram atualizados e a origem e distribuição das espécies vegetais foram verificadas. Um total de 265 espécies de cecidomiídeos é assinalado para o Brasil, a maioria da Mata Atlântica (183), seguida pelo Cerrado (60) e Floresta Amazônica (29). Os outros domínios fitogeográficos abrigam de cinco a dez espécies. Os cecidomiídeos fitófagos estão associados a 128 espécies de plantas de 52 famílias, quase todas nativas, sendo 43 endêmicas do Brasil (21 endêmicas da Mata Atlântica, cinco do Cerrado e uma da Floresta Amazônica). Embora o conhecimento taxonômico se concentre na Mata Atlântica, cada domínio tem sua própria composição faunística e estas informações podem ser úteis para a conservação ambiental. Cerca de 58% da fauna brasileira é conhecida apenas da localidade-tipo. Para preencher estas lacunas, é necessário e importante coletar em áreas não investigadas.

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          The gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

          One hundred and eight species of Cecidomyiinae (Cecidomyiidae) were found in association with 53 species of plant distributed among 42 genera and 32 families at restingas of Barra de Maricá, Itaipuaçu and Carapebus. Ninety four gall midge species were cecidogenous, four predaceous, five inquilinous of galls and five were free living. Galling species were associated with 47 plant species belonging to 36 genera and 28 families. The majority of the galls occurred on the leaves (N = 63); 13 on buds; nine on inflorescence, closed flower or flower peduncle; three on fruits and one on tendril. Myrtaceae were the richest plant family in number of galls followed by Burseraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Sapotaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiaceae and Solanaceae. New records of host plants and localities were recorded. Seventy nine Cecidomyiinae species were found at Restinga of Barra de Maricá, 64 at Carapebus and 41 at Itaipuaçu. Sorensen's index revealed that the restingas of Barra de Maricá and Itaipuaçu ate more similar in Cecidomyiinae fauna, confirming a positive relation between geographical proximity and fauna similarity.
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            Are gall midge species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) host-plant specialists?

            Despite the speciose fauna of gall-inducing insects in the Neotropical region, little is known about their taxonomy. On the other hand, gall morphotypes associated with host species have been extensively used as a surrogate of the inducer species worldwide. This study reviewed the described gall midges and their galls to test the generalization on the use of gall morphotypes as surrogates of gall midge species in the Brazilian fauna. We compiled taxonomic and biological data for 196 gall midge species recorded on 128 host plant species. Ninety two percent of those species were monophagous, inducing galls on a single host plant species, whereas only 5.6% species were oligophagous, inducing galls on more than one congeneric host plant species. Only four species induced galls on more than one host plant genus. We conclude that gall morphotypes associated with information on the host plant species and attacked organs are reliable surrogates of the gall-inducing species.
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              Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil)

              One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families) in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively). Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha), Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera), and predators (Diptera).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bn
                Biota Neotropica
                Biota Neotrop.
                Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
                1676-0611
                2021
                : 21
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Rio de Janeiro RJ orgnameMuseu Nacional orgdiv1Departamento de Entomologia Brasil
                Article
                S1676-06032021000200602 S1676-0603(21)02100200602
                10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1038

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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