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      Estimating the global incidence of traumatic brain injury

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          Traumatic brain injury (TBI)—the “silent epidemic”—contributes to worldwide death and disability more than any other traumatic insult. Yet, TBI incidence and distribution across regions and socioeconomic divides remain unknown. In an effort to promote advocacy, understanding, and targeted intervention, the authors sought to quantify the case burden of TBI across World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank (WB) income groups.

          METHODS

          Open-source epidemiological data on road traffic injuries (RTIs) were used to model the incidence of TBI using literature-derived ratios. First, a systematic review on the proportion of RTIs resulting in TBI was conducted, and a meta-analysis of study-derived proportions was performed. Next, a separate systematic review identified primary source studies describing mechanisms of injury contributing to TBI, and an additional meta-analysis yielded a proportion of TBI that is secondary to the mechanism of RTI. Then, the incidence of RTI as published by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 was applied to these two ratios to generate the incidence and estimated case volume of TBI for each WHO region and WB income group.

          RESULTS

          Relevant articles and registries were identified via systematic review; study quality was higher in the high-income countries (HICs) than in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Sixty-nine million (95% CI 64–74 million) individuals worldwide are estimated to sustain a TBI each year. The proportion of TBIs resulting from road traffic collisions was greatest in Africa and Southeast Asia (both 56%) and lowest in North America (25%). The incidence of RTI was similar in Southeast Asia (1.5% of the population per year) and Europe (1.2%). The overall incidence of TBI per 100,000 people was greatest in North America (1299 cases, 95% CI 650–1947) and Europe (1012 cases, 95% CI 911–1113) and least in Africa (801 cases, 95% CI 732–871) and the Eastern Mediterranean (897 cases, 95% CI 771–1023). The LMICs experience nearly 3 times more cases of TBI proportionally than HICs.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Sixty-nine million (95% CI 64–74 million) individuals are estimated to suffer TBI from all causes each year, with the Southeast Asian and Western Pacific regions experiencing the greatest overall burden of disease. Head injury following road traffic collision is more common in LMICs, and the proportion of TBIs secondary to road traffic collision is likewise greatest in these countries. Meanwhile, the estimated incidence of TBI is highest in regions with higher-quality data, specifically in North America and Europe.

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          Most cited references209

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          Global neurotrauma research challenges and opportunities.

          Traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. The devastating impact of 'trauma', a term used to define the global burden of disease related to all injuries, is the leading cause of loss of human potential across the globe, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Enormous challenges must be met to significantly advance neurotrauma research around the world, specifically in underserved and austere environments. Neurotrauma research at the global level needs to be contextualized: different regions have their own needs and obstacles. Interventions that are not considered a priority in some regions could be a priority for others. The introduction of inexpensive and innovative interventions, including mobile technologies and e-health applications, focused on policy management improvement are essential and should be applicable to the needs of the local environment. The simple transfer of a clinical question from resource-rich environments to those of low- and middle-income countries that lack sophisticated interventions may not be the best strategy to address these countries' needs. Emphasis on promoting the design of true 'ecological' studies that include the evaluation of human factors in relation to the process of care, analytical descriptions of health systems, and how leadership is best applied in medical communities and society as a whole will become crucial.
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            Trends in Traumatic Brain Injury in the U.S. and the public health response: 1995-2009.

            Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a public health problem in the United States. In 2009, approximately 2.4 million [corrected] patients with a TBI listed as primary or secondary diagnosis were hospitalized and discharged alive (N=300,667) or were treated and released from emergency departments (EDs; N=2,077,350), outpatient departments (ODs; N=83,857), and office-based physicians (OB-P; N=1,079,338). In addition, 52,695 died with one or more TBI-related diagnoses. Federal TBI-related laws that have guided CDC since 1996 were reviewed. Trends in TBI were obtained by analyzing data from nationally representative surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). CDC has developed and is implementing a strategy to reduce the burden of TBI in the United States. Currently, 20 states have TBI surveillance and prevention systems. From 1995-2009, the TBI rates per 100,000 population increased in EDs (434.1 vs. 686.0) and OB-Ps (234.6 vs. 352.3); and decreased in ODs (42.6 vs. 28.1) and in TBI-related deaths (19.9 vs. 16.6). TBI Hospitalizations decreased from 95.5 in 1995 to 77.9 in 2000 and increased to 95.7 in 2009. The rates of TBI have increased since 1995 for ED and PO visits. To reduce of the burden and mitigate the impact of TBI in the United States, an improved state- and territory-specific TBI surveillance system that accurately measures burden and includes information on the acute and long-term outcomes of TBI is needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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              Epidemiology of Global Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Qualitative Review.

              Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition affecting children all over the world, and it represents a global public health concern. It is unclear how geopolitical, societal, and ethnic differences may influence the nature of TBI among children.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neurosurgery
                Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG)
                0022-3085
                1933-0693
                April 2018
                April 2018
                : 1-18
                Article
                10.3171/2017.10.JNS17352
                d57ce0f9-d70c-405a-9c65-1eb4a0f3456f
                © 2018

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