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      Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake

      1 , 2 , *

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m 2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m 2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown.

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          Most cited references 9

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at http://brahms.biology.rochester.edu/software.html.
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            Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species.

            Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed independently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration of ice cover, altered streamflow patterns, increased salinization, and increased demand for water storage and conveyance structures. These changes will alter the pathways by which non-native species enter aquatic systems by expanding fish-culture facilities and water gardens to new areas and by facilitating the spread of species during floods. Climate change will influence the likelihood of new species becoming established by eliminating cold temperatures or winter hypoxia that currently prevent survival and by increasing the construction of reservoirs that serve as hotspots for invasive species. Climate change will modify the ecological impacts of invasive species by enhancing their competitive and predatory effects on native species and by increasing the virulence of some diseases. As a result of climate change, new prevention and control strategies such as barrier construction or removal efforts may be needed to control invasive species that currently have only moderate effects or that are limited by seasonally unfavorable conditions. Although most researchers focus on how climate change will increase the number and severity of invasions, some invasive coldwater species may be unable to persist under the new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between climate change and invasive species that will influence how aquatic ecosystems and their biota will respond to novel environmental conditions.
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              Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

              Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                1 June 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biological Sciences, University of the Virgin Islands, #2 John Brewers Bay, St. Thomas, 00802, United States Virgin Islands
                [2 ]Phylogenetic Systematics and Evolution Research Group, Section of Taxonomy and Evolution, Department of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, Bergen, PB 7800, 5020-Bergen, Norway
                Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, SWEDEN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: ECR MAEM. Performed the experiments: ECR MAEM. Analyzed the data: ECR MAEM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ECR MAEM. Wrote the paper: ECR MAEM.

                Article
                PONE-D-15-47358
                10.1371/journal.pone.0156760
                4889056
                27248835
                © 2016 Cruz-Rivera, Malaquias

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: American University in Cairo
                Award ID: Faculty Improvement Grant
                Award Recipient :
                ECR was supported by a Faculty Improvement Grant from the American University in Cairo. MAEM received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Bodies of Water
                Lakes
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Freshwater Environments
                Lakes
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Freshwater Environments
                Lakes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Molluscs
                Gastropods
                Snails
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Algae
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Malacology
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Species Colonization
                Invasive Species
                Earth Sciences
                Hydrology
                Fresh Water
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Molluscs
                Gastropods
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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