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      Identification of Good Responders to Rhythm Control of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation by Transthoracic and Transesophageal Echocardiography

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          Abstract

          Background: Identification of good responders to rhythm control in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) is worthwhile in terms of increasing hemodynamic benefit and decreasing the likelihood of unstable anticoagulation even after the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management. Methods: We tested the hypothesis that atrial substrate determines the risk of recurrence on rhythm control both in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and in those with persistent or sustained AF (≧1 week, SAF). There were 90 consecutive patients (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 67 males and 23 females) with previous PAF (n = 66) or SAF (n = 24). They were maintained in sinus rhythm successfully for at least 1 month after conversion and then studied by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. All of the patients were followed regularly by determination of symptoms, 12-lead ECG and intermittent Holter recording to determine recurrence of AF after echocardiographic study. Results: After 9.1 ± 3.8 (range 3–12) months of follow-up, 23 of the 90 (26%) patients had documented recurrence of AF (67 without recurrence). Univariate analysis of demographic characteristics, medications, ECG and echocardiographic parameters revealed that, compared with the group of patients without recurrent AF, the group of those with it included more members of the SAF group (11/27 vs. 13/67, p = 0.039), included more male subjects (22/23 vs. 45/67, p = 0.045), had a larger left atrial volume index (LAVI; 27 ± 9 vs. 22 ± 9 ml/m<sup>2</sup>, p = 0.024) and had lower LA appendage peak emptying velocity (LAAPEV; 42 ± 15 vs. 55 ± 22 cm/s, p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusted for age, gender and AF group revealed that patients with LAVI <30 ml/m<sup>2</sup> and LAAPEV >46 cm/s had the least recurrence of AF (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.55, vs. with LAVI >30 ml/m<sup>2</sup> or LAAPEV <46 cm/s, p = 0.002). Kaplan-Meier probability of freedom from AF recurrence was significantly better when LAVI <30 ml/m<sup>2</sup> (log-rank p = 0.02), LAAPEV > 46 cm/s (p = 0.013) or both (p = 0.004). The superiority to predict the rate of sinus rhythm maintenance was the same in the PAF and SAF groups. Conclusions: Good responders to rhythm control in the PAF and SAF groups share the characteristics of smaller LA volume and better LAA contractile function, emphasizing the critical role of atrial substrate remodeling in recurrence of AF.

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          Most cited references 19

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          A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with recurrent persistent atrial fibrillation.

          Maintenance of sinus rhythm is the main therapeutic goal in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, recurrences of atrial fibrillation and side effects of antiarrhythmic drugs offset the benefits of sinus rhythm. We hypothesized that ventricular rate control is not inferior to the maintenance of sinus rhythm for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. We randomly assigned 522 patients who had persistent atrial fibrillation after a previous electrical cardioversion to receive treatment aimed at rate control or rhythm control. Patients in the rate-control group received oral anticoagulant drugs and rate-slowing medication. Patients in the rhythm-control group underwent serial cardioversions and received antiarrhythmic drugs and oral anticoagulant drugs. The end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, heart failure, thromboembolic complications, bleeding, implantation of a pacemaker, and severe adverse effects of drugs. After a mean (+/-SD) of 2.3+/-0.6 years, 39 percent of the 266 patients in the rhythm-control group had sinus rhythm, as compared with 10 percent of the 256 patients in the rate-control group. The primary end point occurred in 44 patients (17.2 percent) in the rate-control group and in 60 (22.6 percent) in the rhythm-control group. The 90 percent (two-sided) upper boundary of the absolute difference in the primary end point was 0.4 percent (the prespecified criterion for noninferiority was 10 percent or less). The distribution of the various components of the primary end point was similar in the rate-control and rhythm-control groups. Rate control is not inferior to rhythm control for the prevention of death and morbidity from cardiovascular causes and may be appropriate therapy in patients with a recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation after electrical cardioversion. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Left atrial volume: important risk marker of incident atrial fibrillation in 1655 older men and women.

            To evaluate the contribution of left atrial (LA) volume in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF). In this retrospective cohort study, a random sample of 2200 adults was identified from all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents who had undergone transthoracic echocardiographic assessment between 1990 and 1998 and were 65 years of age or older at the time of examination, were in sinus rhythm, and had no history of AF or other atrial arrhythmias, stroke, pacemaker, congenital heart disease, or valve surgery. The LA volume was measured off-line by using a biplane area-length method. Clinical characteristics and the outcome event of incident AF were determined by retrospective review of medical records. Echocardiographic data were retrieved from the laboratory database. From this cohort, 1655 patients in whom LA size data were available were followed from baseline echocardiogram until development of AF or death. The clinical and echocardiographic associations of AF, especially with respect to the role of LA volume in predicting AF, were determined. A total of 666 men and 989 women, mean +/- SD age of 75.2 +/- 7.3 years (range, 65-105 years), were followed for a mean +/- SD of 3.97 +/- 2.75 years (range, < 1.00-10.78 years); 189 (11.4%) developed AF. Cox model 5-year cumulative risks of AF by quartiles of LA volume were 3%, 12%, 15%, and 26%, respectively. With Cox proportional hazards multivariate models, logarithmic LA volume was an independent predictor of AF, incremental to clinical risk factors. After adjusting for age, sex, valvular heart disease, and hypertension, a 30% larger LA volume was associated with a 43% greater risk of AF, incremental to history of congestive heart failure (hazard ratio [HR], 1.887; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.230-2.895; P = .004), myocardial infarction (HR, 1.751; 95% CI, 1.189-2.577; P = .004), and diabetes (HR, 1.734; 95% CI, 1.066-2.819; P = .03). Left atrial volume remained incremental to combined clinical risk factors and M-mode LA dimension for prediction of AF (P < .001). This study showed that a larger LA volume was associated with a higher risk of AF in older patients. The predictive value of LA volume was incremental to that of clinical risk profile and conventional M-mode LA dimension.
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              Atrial extracellular matrix remodeling and the maintenance of atrial fibrillation.

              Remodeling occurs in both ventricle and atrium in dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. However, the alteration of atrial extracellular matrix components during remodeling and its effect on the electrical remodeling and atrial arrhythmia have never been explored. Atrial tissue samples of 53 explanted hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and end-stage heart failure who underwent heart transplantation were examined. Nineteen patients had permanent atrial fibrillation (PmAF), 18 had persistent AF (PsAF), and 16 had no documented AF (NAF). Sixteen donor left atria (LA) were used as controls (CNs). Western Blot analysis revealed a selective downregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 in PmAF and PsAF groups compared with the NAF and CN groups and an upregulation of atrial metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 that was most pronounced in the PmAF group followed by the PsAF and NAF groups. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that in the LA, type I collagen volume fraction (CVF-I) increased significantly in the PmAF group followed by the PsAF and NAF groups compared with that in CN. LA CVF-I significantly correlated with LA dimension and TIMP-2 to MMP-2 ratio. In the PsAF group, CVF-I/CVF-III ratio was significantly correlated with AF duration and the frequency of AF recurrence. Atrial extracellular matrix remodeling manifested by the selective downregulation of TIMP-2 along with upregulation of MMP-2 and CVF-I in the atrium is associated with the development of sustained atrial fibrillation in patients with cardiomyopathy and heart failure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                September 2005
                04 October 2005
                : 104
                : 4
                : 202-209
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Yun-Lin, bDepartment of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, and cInstitute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (ROC)
                Article
                88174 Cardiology 2005;104:202–209
                10.1159/000088174
                16155395
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 23, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Arrhythmias and Electrophysiology

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