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      A Perspective on the Trends and Challenges Facing Porphyrin-Based Anti-Microbial Materials

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      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers.

          Electrospinning is a highly versatile method to process solutions or melts, mainly of polymers, into continuous fibers with diameters ranging from a few micrometers to a few nanometers. This technique is applicable to virtually every soluble or fusible polymer. The polymers can be chemically modified and can also be tailored with additives ranging from simple carbon-black particles to complex species such as enzymes, viruses, and bacteria. Electrospinning appears to be straightforward, but is a rather intricate process that depends on a multitude of molecular, process, and technical parameters. The method provides access to entirely new materials, which may have complex chemical structures. Electrospinning is not only a focus of intense academic investigation; the technique is already being applied in many technological areas.
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            Nanometre diameter fibres of polymer, produced by electrospinning

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              Porphysome nanovesicles generated by porphyrin bilayers for use as multimodal biophotonic contrast agents.

              Optically active nanomaterials promise to advance a range of biophotonic techniques through nanoscale optical effects and integration of multiple imaging and therapeutic modalities. Here, we report the development of porphysomes; nanovesicles formed from self-assembled porphyrin bilayers that generated large, tunable extinction coefficients, structure-dependent fluorescence self-quenching and unique photothermal and photoacoustic properties. Porphysomes enabled the sensitive visualization of lymphatic systems using photoacoustic tomography. Near-infrared fluorescence generation could be restored on dissociation, creating opportunities for low-background fluorescence imaging. As a result of their organic nature, porphysomes were enzymatically biodegradable and induced minimal acute toxicity in mice with intravenous doses of 1,000 mg kg(-1). In a similar manner to liposomes, the large aqueous core of porphysomes could be passively or actively loaded. Following systemic administration, porphysomes accumulated in tumours of xenograft-bearing mice and laser irradiation induced photothermal tumour ablation. The optical properties and biocompatibility of porphysomes demonstrate the multimodal potential of organic nanoparticles for biophotonic imaging and therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Small
                Small
                Wiley-Blackwell
                16136810
                July 2016
                July 2016
                : 12
                : 27
                : 3609-3644
                Article
                10.1002/smll.201600327
                27276371
                d59602c2-6c01-4394-a7af-1a23a6227451
                © 2016

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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