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      Dolor abdominal, dispepsia y gastritis en pediatría: Rol del Helicobacter pylori Translated title: Abdominal pain, dyspepsia and gastritis in Paedriatrics: the role of Helicobacter pylori

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          Abstract

          Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), el patógeno más común del tracto gastrointestinal en seres humanos, es la causa más frecuente de gastritis crónica, está asociado etiológicamente con úlcera gastroduodenal y algunos cánceres gástricos. La creciente acumulación de información ha hecho necesario reevaluar los conceptos de gastritis, dolor abdominal y dispepsia en pediatría, por lo que el objetivo de esta revisión fue actualizar estos conceptos enfatizando la relación de estas entidades y discutir la evidencia disponible para promover una buena práctica clínica, al respecto. La asociación entre la infección por H. pylori y otras condiciones, como dolor abdominal recurrente y dispepsia no ulcerosa, no ha sido demostrada y es más bien especulativa. El H. pylori es considerado un patógeno, porque, entre otras características, cumple cada uno de los postulados de Koch como causante de gastritis crónica; en efecto, H. pylori juega un rol crítico y necesario en la patogénesis de la gastritis crónica activa. El papel de H. pylori como causa de úlcera péptica en adultos ha sido bien establecido. Aunque en niños las evidencias no son tan potentes, sí son altamente sugerentes. Aun cuando la mayoría de la población mundial está colonizada por H. pylori, solo una pequeña proporción tendrá manifestaciones clínicas producidas por la infección. Aproximadamente el 10% de ellos desarrollará úlcera péptica a lo largo de su vida, y las personas infectadas tendrán un incremento de 2 a 6 veces en el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer y linfoma tipo MALT (tejido linfoide asociado a mucosas) comparado con población no infectada

          Translated abstract

          Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common bacterial pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract in humans and also the most common cause of chronic gastritis and is aetiologically associated with duodenal and gastric ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. The explosive accumulation of published reports makes it necessary to review the concepts of gastritis, recurrent abdominal pain and dyspepsia in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to update the concepts and to clarify their relationship with H. pylori and to discuss their validity in order to promote good clinical practice. Causative associations between H. pylori infection and other conditions are tenuous and speculative, these conditions include recurrent abdominal pain and non-ulcer dyspepsia. H. pylori is firmly established as a human pathogen because it fulfills each of Koch´s postulates as an infective agent causing chronic-active gastritis. Indeed H. pylori plays a critical and necessary role in the pathogenesis of chronic -active gastritis in adults. Whether H. pylori is a cause of peptic ulcer disease is less well established in children, nevertheless, the evidence for its causation is compelling. There is a strong epidemiological association between H. pylori and peptic ulceration in the absence of drug ingestion in adults. Although many people are infected, only a samll proportion will have clinical manifestations of disease. Approximately 10% of those infected will develop peptic ulcer disease during their lifetime. Infected persons have a 2-6 fold increased risk of developing cancer or MALT lymphoma compared to their uninfected counterparts

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          Most cited references 99

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          Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma.

          Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. We examined whether this infection is also a risk factor for primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This nested case-control study involved two large cohorts (230,593 participants). Serum had been collected from cohort members and stored, and all subjects were followed for cancer. Thirty-three patients with gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were identified, and each was matched to four controls according to cohort, age, sex, and date of serum collection. For comparison, 31 patients with nongastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from one of the cohorts were evaluated, each of whom had been previously matched to 2 controls. Pathological reports and specimens were reviewed to confirm the histologic type of the tumor. Serum samples from all subjects were tested for H. pylori IgG by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-three cases of gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurred a median of 14 years after serum collection. Patients with gastric lymphoma were significantly more likely than matched controls to have evidence of previous H. pylori infection (matched odds ratio, 6.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.0 to 19.9). The results were similar in both cohorts. Among the 31 patients with nongastric lymphoma, a median of six years had elapsed between serum collection and the development of disease. No association was found between nongastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and previous H. pylori infection (matched odds ratio, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.5 to 3.0). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma affecting the stomach, but not other sites, is associated with previous H. pylori infection. A causative role for the organism is plausible, but remains unproved.
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            An international association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer

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              Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population in the United States. Effect of age, race, and socioeconomic status.

              A causative role is now accepted for Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori in type B gastritis, and evidence is accumulating that H. pylori infection plays a major contributory role in peptic ulcer disease. Preliminary studies have reported that the prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age, but detailed information on the prevalence of the bacteria in any defined population and on the factors that may influence the pattern of distribution remains scanty. In the present study, a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a [13C] urea breath test were used to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection among 485 healthy asymptomatic volunteers between the ages of 15 and 80 residing in the Houston metropolitan area. H. pylori infection was present in 52%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased rapidly with age at 1%/yr for the overall population. The frequency of H. pylori infection was higher in blacks (70%) than whites (34%) (P less than 0.001); this difference remained after adjustments were made for age, gender, educational level, income, and use of tobacco or alcohol. H. pylori infection was independent of gender but was closely correlated with socioeconomic class. There were significant inverse correlations between age-adjusted frequency of H. pylori infection and income and between educational level and H. pylori infection. There was no association between H. pylori infection and consumption of alcohol or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use or smoking. Having pets was associated with a lower frequency of H. pylori infection, but this was highly associated with higher socioeconomic status. The mode(s) of transmission of H. pylori is unknown, but the social patterns of H. pylori infection are consistent with fecal-oral transmission as one important pathway. Socioeconomic factors seem to determine the age of acquisition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcp
                Revista chilena de pediatría
                Rev. chil. pediatr.
                Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría (Santiago, , Chile )
                0370-4106
                March 2001
                : 72
                : 2
                : 81-91
                Affiliations
                orgnamePontificia Universidad Católica de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Sección Gastroenterología Pediátrica
                orgnamePontificia Universidad Católica de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas orgdiv2Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología
                Article
                S0370-41062001000200002 S0370-4106(01)07200200002
                10.4067/S0370-41062001000200002

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 66, Pages: 11
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                dispepsia, Helicobacter pylori, dyspepsia, gastritis

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