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      Iliac Crest Bone Graft versus Local Autograft or Allograft for Lumbar Spinal Fusion: A Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          Study Design

           Systematic review.

          Objective

           To compare the effectiveness and safety between iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) and local autologous bone and allograft in the lumbar spine.

          Methods

           A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases identified studies evaluating spinal fusion in patients with degenerative joint disease using ICBG, local autograft, or allograft in the thoracolumbar spine.

          Results

           Six comparative studies met our inclusion criteria. A “low” strength of the overall body of evidence suggested no difference in fusion percentages in the lumbar spine between local autograft and ICBG. We found no difference in fusion percentages based on low evidence comparing allograft with ICBG autograft. There were no differences in pain or functional results comparing local autograft or allograft with ICBG autograft. Donor site pain and hematoma/seroma occurred more frequently in ICBG autograft group for lumbar fusion procedures. There was low evidence around the estimate of patients with donor site pain following ICBG harvesting, ranging from 16.7 to 20%. With respect to revision, low evidence demonstrated no difference between allograft and ICBG autograft. There was no evidence comparing patients receiving allograft with local autograft for fusion, pain, functional, and safety outcomes.

          Conclusion

           In the lumbar spine, ICBG, local autograft, and allograft have similar effectiveness in terms of fusion rates, pain scores, and functional outcomes. However, ICBG is associated with an increased risk for donor site-related complications. Significant limitations exist in the available literature when comparing ICBG, local autograft, and allograft for lumbar fusion, and thus ICBG versus other fusion methods necessitates further investigation.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Bone substitutes in orthopaedic surgery: from basic science to clinical practice

          Bone substitutes are being increasingly used in surgery as over two millions bone grafting procedures are performed worldwide per year. Autografts still represent the gold standard for bone substitution, though the morbidity and the inherent limited availability are the main limitations. Allografts, i.e. banked bone, are osteoconductive and weakly osteoinductive, though there are still concerns about the residual infective risks, costs and donor availability issues. As an alternative, xenograft substitutes are cheap, but their use provided contrasting results, so far. Ceramic-based synthetic bone substitutes are alternatively based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphates, and are widely used in the clinical practice. Indeed, despite being completely resorbable and weaker than cortical bone, they have exhaustively proved to be effective. Biomimetic HAs are the evolution of traditional HA and contains ions (carbonates, Si, Sr, Fl, Mg) that mimic natural HA (biomimetic HA). Injectable cements represent another evolution, enabling mininvasive techniques. Bone morphogenetic proteins (namely BMP2 and 7) are the only bone inducing growth factors approved for human use in spine surgery and for the treatment of tibial nonunion. Demineralized bone matrix and platelet rich plasma did not prove to be effective and their use as bone substitutes remains controversial. Experimental cell-based approaches are considered the best suitable emerging strategies in several regenerative medicine application, including bone regeneration. In some cases, cells have been used as bioactive vehicles delivering osteoinductive genes locally to achieve bone regeneration. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells have been widely exploited for this purpose, being multipotent cells capable of efficient osteogenic potential. Here we intend to review and update the alternative available techniques used for bone fusion, along with some hints on the advancements achieved through the experimental research in this field.
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            Morbidity at bone graft donor sites.

            A review of the medical records of 239 patients with 243 autogenous bone grafts was undertaken to document the morbidity at the donor sites. The overall major complication rate was 8.6%. Major complications included infection (2.5%), prolonged wound drainage (0.8%), large hematomas (3.3%), reoperation (3.8%), pain greater than 6 months (2.5%), sensory loss (1.2%), and unsightly scars. Minor complications (20.6%) included superficial infection, minor wound problems, temporary sensory loss, and mild or resolving pain. There was a much higher complication rate (17.9% major) if the incision used for the surgery was also the same incision used to harvest the bone graft.
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              • Article: not found

              Introducing levels of evidence to the journal.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Global Spine J
                Global Spine J
                10.1055/s-00000177
                Global Spine Journal
                Georg Thieme Verlag KG (Stuttgart · New York )
                2192-5682
                2192-5690
                06 January 2016
                September 2016
                : 6
                : 6
                : 592-606
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedics, University of Utah, School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
                [3 ]Durango Orthopedic Associates, P.C./Spine Colorado, Durango, Colorado, United States
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Bergmannstrost Hospital, Halle, Germany
                [5 ]Spectrum Research, Inc., Tacoma, Washington, United States
                [6 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Uijeongbu, Korea
                [7 ]Department of Orthopedics, Emory Spine Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
                [8 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence Alexander Tuchman, MD Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California 1200 N. State Street, Suite 3300, Los Angeles, CA 90033United States alexandertuchman@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                1500159
                10.1055/s-0035-1570749
                4993607
                27556001
                © Thieme Medical Publishers
                Categories
                Review Article

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