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      Persistent organic pollutants: The trade-off between potential risks and sustainable remediation methods.

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          Abstract

          Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) have become a very serious issue for the environment because of their toxicity, resistance to conventional degradation mechanisms, and capacity to bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate and biomagnify. In this review article, the safety, regulatory, and remediation aspects of POPs including aromatic, chlorinated, pesticides, brominated, and fluorinated compounds, are discussed. Industrial and agricultural activities are identified as the main sources of these harmful chemicals, which are released to air, soil and water, impacting on social and economic development of society at a global scale. The main types of POPs are presented, illustrating their effects on wildlife and human beings, as well as the ways in which they contaminate the food chain. Some of the most promising and innovative technologies developed for the removal of POPs from water are discussed, contrasting their advantages and disadvantages with those of more conventional treatment processes. The promising methods presented in this work include bioremediation, advanced oxidation, ionizing radiation, and nanotechnology. Finally, some alternatives to define more efficient approaches to overcome the impacts that POPs cause in the hydric sources are pointed out. These alternatives include the formulation of policies, regulations and custom-made legislation for controlling the use of these pollutants.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Environ Manage
          Journal of environmental management
          Elsevier BV
          1095-8630
          0301-4797
          Dec 15 2021
          : 300
          Affiliations
          [1 ] School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, 100119, Urcuquí, Ecuador. Electronic address: daniela.negrete@yachaytech.edu.ec.
          [2 ] Tissue Regeneration and Repair: Orthobiology, Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering Research Group, UCAM - Universidad Católica de Murcia, Avda. Los Jerónimos 135, Guadalupe, 30107, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address: czamora9@ucam.edu.
          [3 ] School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, 100119, Urcuquí, Ecuador. Electronic address: cristina.chuya@yachaytech.edu.ec.
          [4 ] Laboratório de Sistemas Poliméricos e Supramoleculares, Physics and Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Itajubá, 37500-903, Itajubá, Brazil. Electronic address: fredbsousa@unifei.edu.br.
          [5 ] Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA. Electronic address: dwhiteh@clemson.edu.
          [6 ] School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, 100119, Urcuquí, Ecuador. Electronic address: falexis@yachaytech.edu.ec.
          [7 ] Department of Materials, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Quito, 170525, Ecuador. Electronic address: victor.guerrero@epn.edu.ec.
          Article
          S0301-4797(21)01799-0
          10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113737
          34536739
          d59dfcc7-0752-4c60-8a9a-d29438629774
          Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

          Contaminants,POPs,Pesticides,Policies,Remediation,Toxicity
          Contaminants, POPs, Pesticides, Policies, Remediation, Toxicity

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