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      Uso de las sondas de alimentación en el paciente con demencia avanzada: revisión sistemática Translated title: Use of feeding tubes in patients with advanced dementia: systematic review

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          Abstract

          Introducción: La aparición de disfagia es marcador de la fase final de la demencia. Estudios hasta el 2000 ponían en entredicho los objetivos que justifican la colocación de sondas de alimentación, pero ésta sigue siendo una intervención frecuente en demencias avanzadas. Objetivos: Responder a las siguientes cuestiones según la evidencia disponible: La alimentación por sonda PEG en demencias avanzadas: ¿previene aspiraciones?, ¿previene desnutrición?, ¿aumenta la supervivencia?, ¿se tratan de manera paliativa? Metodología: Revisión bibliográfica. Estudios publicados 2000-2012. Inglés y castellano. Bases de datos: Pubmed, Google Scholar, Cochrane. MeSH: Dementia, Enteral nutrition, Nutritional support, Endoscopic gastrostomy, Tube feeding, Peg, Enteral feeding, Ethics, Quality of life, Palliative care, Dysphagia y Make decisions. Resultados: 96 artículos cumplían criterios para incluir en este estudio. 24 españoles, 72 publicaciones extranjeras. Las sonda nasogástrica y sonda PEG no están indicadas en pacientes con riesgo de broncoaspiraciones; las indicadas por la ESPEN tampoco las previenen. La guía ESPEN no considera indicado usar sondas de alimentación en la última fase de la demencia; la pérdida de peso es consecuencia de la enfermedad. Estudios señalan factores que afectan negativamente a la supervivencia. La mortalidad en los primeros 30 días tras la colocación de la sonda es muy elevada. La demencia no es asumida como enfermedad terminal, provocando ambivalencia en la toma de decisiones al final de la vida. La formación en cuidados paliativos no oncológicos es muy escasa, hecho que favorece instauración de tratamientos desproporcionados. Conclusiones: La alimentación enteral en la demencia avanzada sigue siendo una intervención frecuente, no hay evidencia que establezca que la alimentación por sondas prevengan las aspiraciones, ni se logre una mejora en el estado nutricional, prevenga la desnutrición o sus consecuencias. Tampoco se logra un aumento de la supervivencia, incluso hay estudios que plantean una disminución de la supervivencia. Estos pacientes no se benefician de cuidados paliativos, porque la demencia severa tradicionalmente no ha sido considerada como enfermedad terminal, aunque muchos estudios aseguran que se lograría una mejora de la calidad de vida en la fase final de la enfermedad.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: The onset of dysphagia is a sign of the final stage of dementia. Studies up to the year 2000 called into question the objectives which justify the insertion of a feeding tube, but this continues to be a frequent intervention in advanced dementias. Objectives: To answer the following questions based on available evidence: Does feeding by PEG tubes in advanced dementia prevent aspiration? Does it prevent malnutrition? Does it increase survival rates? Are they treated palliatively? Methodology: Bibliographic research. Studies published 2000-2012. English and Spanish. Databases: Pubmed, Google Scholar, Cochrane. MeSH: Dementia, Enteral nutrition, Nutritional support, Endoscopic gastrostomy, Tube feeding, PEG, Enteral feeding, Ethics, Quality of life, Palliative care, Dysphagia and Making decisions. Results: 96 articles met criteria to be included in this study. 24 Spanish, 72 in international publications. Nasogastric and PEG tubes are not indicated in patients at risk of bronchoaspirations; neither do those indicated by ESPEN prevent them. The ESPEN guide does not consider the use of feeding tubes to be suitable in the final stage of dementia; weight loss is a consequence of the disease. Studies suggest factors which affect survival negatively. Mortality in the first 30 days after insertion of the tube is very high. Dementia is not accepted as a terminal disease, causing ambivalence in decision taking at the end of life. Training in non-oncological palliative care is very limited, a fact which can increase the establishment of disproportionate treatments. Conclusions: Enteral feeding in advanced dementia continues to be a frequent intervention; there is no evidence which establishes that tube feeding prevents aspirations, or that an improvement in nutritional status is achieved, or that it prevents malnutrition or its consequences. Neither are higher survival rates achieved; there are even studies which suggest lower survival rates. These patients are not benefited by palliative care because severe dementia has not traditionally been considered a terminal disease, despite the fact that many studies claim that a higher quality of life would be achieved in the final stage of the illness.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Rethinking the role of tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia.

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            Survival analysis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding: a worse outcome in patients with dementia.

            Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding has been validated in specific clinical situations such as acute stroke with dysphagia and oropharyngeal malignancy. The perception that gastrostomy insertion is safe and technically simple has led to an increase in the demands for PEG insertion, encompassing clinical applications such as in patients with dementia, in whom its role has not been justified. The purpose of this study was to compare the mortality of patients with dementia who were fed by PEG to that of other subgroups of patients requiring gastrostomy feeding. The study focused on a cohort of 361 consecutive patients requiring PEG feeding between August 1992 and July 1997 from two District General Hospitals (Rotherham District General Hospital and Doncaster Royal Infirmary) in South Yorkshire. A retrospective cohort survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier survival method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. In all patients requiring gastrostomy feeding there is a high initial mortality of 28% at 30 days. However, patients with dementia have a worse prognosis compared to other subgroups, with 54% having died at 1 month and 90% at 1 yr (log rank test p < 0.0001). This difference remained significant (log rank p < 0.0001) after adjusting for age at the time of PEG insertion. This is the first demonstration in the United Kingdom that the mortality of patients with dementia who are fed by gastrostomy is considerable. Consequently, we may wish to advise against gastrostomy feeding in selected patients within this clinical setting.
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              Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy does not prolong survival in patients with dementia.

              Artificial feeding by a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in patients with dementia has increased since the introduction of the endoscopic method of tube placement. Few studies have documented survival benefit from this intervention. This report reviews our experience with PEG tube placement for feeding patients with dementia. All consultations for PEG tube placement were evaluated by a certified nutrition support nurse (L.M.M.) in consultation with a member of the gastroenterology physician staff (T.O.L.) for 24 months. Evaluation included the attainment of a brief medical history, a physical examination, and a review of comorbid conditions, laboratory variables for nutrition status, and bleeding risk. Interviews with patients or surrogates were conducted, including an explanation of the risks and benefits of PEG tube placement. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to compare the median survival between patients with dementia who received a PEG tube and patients with dementia in whom PEG tube placement was refused. We received 41 consultations for PEG tube placement in patients with dementia. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed in 23 patients; 18 patients met the medical criteria for PEG tube placement, but surrogates refused placement. The median survival for the 23 patients who underwent PEG was 59 days; the median survival for the 18 patients who did not undergo PEG was 60 days. There seems to be no survival benefit in patients with dementia who receive artificial feeding by a PEG tube.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                albacete
                Revista Clínica de Medicina de Familia
                Rev Clin Med Fam
                Sociedad Castellano-Manchega de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (Albacete )
                1699-695X
                February 2013
                : 6
                : 1
                : 37-42
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Complejo Universitario de Albacete Spain
                Article
                S1699-695X2013000100007
                10.4321/s1699-695x2013000100007
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                HEALTH CARE SCIENCES & SERVICES
                MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL
                PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

                Internal medicine, Health & Social care

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