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      Genome-Wide Development of MicroRNA-Based SSR Markers in Medicago truncatula with Their Transferability Analysis and Utilization in Related Legume Species

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          Abstract

          Microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) marker is one of the most widely used markers in marker-assisted breeding. As one type of functional markers, MicroRNA-based SSR (miRNA-SSR) markers have been exploited mainly in animals, but the development and characterization of miRNA-SSR markers in plants are still limited. In the present study, miRNA-SSR markers for Medicago truncatula ( M. truncatula) were developed and their cross-species transferability in six leguminous species was evaluated. A total of 169 primer pairs were successfully designed from 130 M. truncatula miRNA genes, the majority of which were mononucleotide repeats (70.41%), followed by dinucleotide repeats (14.20%), compound repeats (11.24%) and trinucleotide repeats (4.14%). Functional classification of SSR-containing miRNA genes showed that all targets could be grouped into three Gene Ontology (GO) categories: 17 in biological process, 11 in molecular function, and 14 in cellular component. The miRNA-SSR markers showed high transferability in other six leguminous species, ranged from 74.56% to 90.53%. Furthermore, 25 Mt -miRNA-SSR markers were used to evaluate polymorphisms in 20 alfalfa accessions, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.39 to 0.89 with an average of 0.71, the allele number per marker varied from 3 to 18 with an average of 7.88, indicating a high level of informativeness. The present study is the first time developed and characterized of M. truncatula miRNA-SSRs and demonstrated their utility in transferability, these novel markers will be valuable for genetic diversity analysis, marker-assisted selection and genotyping in leguminous species.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Origin, biogenesis, and activity of plant microRNAs.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. Plants use highly conserved as well as more recently evolved, species-specific miRNAs to control a vast array of biological processes. This Review discusses current advances in our understanding of the origin, biogenesis, and mode of action of plant miRNAs and draws comparisons with their metazoan counterparts.
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            psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server

            Plant endogenous non-coding short small RNAs (20–24 nt), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs), play important role in gene expression regulatory networks (GRNs). For example, many transcription factors and development-related genes have been reported as targets of these regulatory small RNAs. Although a number of miRNA target prediction algorithms and programs have been developed, most of them were designed for animal miRNAs which are significantly different from plant miRNAs in the target recognition process. These differences demand the development of separate plant miRNA (and ta-siRNA) target analysis tool(s). We present psRNATarget, a plant small RNA target analysis server, which features two important analysis functions: (i) reverse complementary matching between small RNA and target transcript using a proven scoring schema, and (ii) target-site accessibility evaluation by calculating unpaired energy (UPE) required to ‘open’ secondary structure around small RNA’s target site on mRNA. The psRNATarget incorporates recent discoveries in plant miRNA target recognition, e.g. it distinguishes translational and post-transcriptional inhibition, and it reports the number of small RNA/target site pairs that may affect small RNA binding activity to target transcript. The psRNATarget server is designed for high-throughput analysis of next-generation data with an efficient distributed computing back-end pipeline that runs on a Linux cluster. The server front-end integrates three simplified user-friendly interfaces to accept user-submitted or preloaded small RNAs and transcript sequences; and outputs a comprehensive list of small RNA/target pairs along with the online tools for batch downloading, key word searching and results sorting. The psRNATarget server is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/.
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              Plant microRNA: a small regulatory molecule with big impact.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant new class of non-coding approximately 20-24 nt small RNAs. To date, 872 miRNAs, belonging to 42 families, have been identified in 71 plant species by genetic screening, direct cloning after isolation of small RNAs, computational strategy, and expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. Many plant miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved from species to species, some from angiosperms to mosses. miRNAs may originate from inverted duplications of target gene sequences in plants. Although miRNA precursors display high variability, their mature sequences display extensive sequence complementarity to their target mRNA sequences. miRNAs play important roles in plant post-transcriptional gene regulation by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or repressing translation. miRNAs are involved in plant development, signal transduction, protein degradation, response to environmental stress and pathogen invasion, and regulate their own biogenesis. miRNAs regulate the expression of many important genes; a majority of these genes are transcriptional factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                18 November 2017
                November 2017
                : 18
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agricultural Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020, China; minxy15@ 123456lzu.edu.cn (X.M.); zhangzs14@ 123456lzu.edu.cn (Z.Z.); weixy16@ 123456lzu.edu.cn (X.W.); lzp@ 123456lzu.edu.cn (Z.L.); yrwang@ 123456lzu.edu.cn (Y.W.)
                [2 ]China Telecom Gansu Wanwei Company, Lanzhou 730030, China; yisongliu2000@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: liuwx@ 123456lzu.edu.cn ; Tel./Fax: +86-931-891-4051
                Article
                ijms-18-02440
                10.3390/ijms18112440
                5713407
                29156589
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                medicago truncatula, microrna, microsatellites, genetic diversity, alfalfa

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