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      Olfactory host location and learning in the granary weevil parasitoidLariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

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      Journal of Insect Behavior
      Springer Nature

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          How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps.

          Parasitic and predatory arthropods often prevent plants from being severely damaged by killing herbivores as they feed on the plants. Recent studies show that a variety of plants, when injured by herbivores, emit chemical signals that guide natural enemies to the herbivores. It is unlikely that herbivore-damaged plants initiate the production of chemicals solely to attract parasitoids and predators. The signaling role probably evolved secondarily from plant responses that produce toxins and deterrents against herbivores and antibiotics against pathogens. To effectively function as signals for natural enemies, the emitted volatiles should be clearly distinguishable from background odors, specific for prey or host species that feed on the plant, and emitted at times when the natural enemies forage. Our studies on the phenomena of herbivore-induced emissions of volatiles in corn and cotton plants and studies conducted by others indicate that (i) the clarity of the volatile signals is high, as they are unique for herbivore damage, produced in relatively large amounts, and easily distinguishable from background odors; (ii) specificity is limited when different herbivores feed on the same plant species but high as far as odors emitted by different plant species and genotypes are concerned; (iii) the signals are timed so that they are mainly released during the daytime, when natural enemies tend to forage, and they wane slowly after herbivory stops.
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            Local and Systemic Production of Volatile Herbivore-induced Terpenoids: Their Role in Plant-carnivore Mutualism

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              Isolation and identification of allelochemicals that attract the larval parasitoid,Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), to the microhabitat of one of its hosts.

              Volatiles released from corn seedlings on which beet armyworm larvae were feeding were attractive to females of the parasitoid,Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), in flight tunnel bioassays. Analyses of the collected volatiles revealed the consistent presence of 11 compounds in significant amounts. They were: (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)- 3-hexen-1-yl acetate, linalool, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, indole, α-trans-bergamotene, (E)-β-farnesene, (E)-nerolidol, and (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1, 3,7,ll-tridecatetraene. A synthetic blend of all 11 compounds was slightly less attractive to parasitoid females than an equivalent natural blend. However, preflight experience with the synthetic blend instead of experience with a regular plant-host complex significantly improved the response to the synthetic blend. Our results suggest thatC. marginiventris females, in their search for hosts, use a blend of airborne semiochemicals emitted by plants on which their hosts feed. The response to a particular odor blend dramatically increases after a parasitoid experiences it in association with contacting host by-products.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Insect Behavior
                J Insect Behav
                Springer Nature
                0892-7553
                1572-8889
                May 1997
                May 1997
                : 10
                : 3
                : 331-342
                Article
                10.1007/BF02765601
                d5afe804-e983-4372-a50a-42d3963d0fb0
                © 1997
                History

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