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      Early Hemoperfusion for Cytokine Removal May Contribute to Prevention of Intubation in Patients Infected with COVID-19


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          Hemoperfusion (HP) was helpful to prevent the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury (AKI), liver failure, and septic shock by removing cytokines and other inflammatory mediators and ultimately preventing progression toward multiple organ failure. A 54-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 was hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The patient's O<sub>2</sub> saturation was 80% using an oxygen mask, which was gradually declining. After 4 sessions of HP/continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT), O<sub>2</sub> saturation reached to 95%, and the patient was transferred to the general ward. Performing HP/CRRT at the early stages of ARDS can obviate the need for intubating patients with COVID-19. Punctual and early use of HP and CRRT in the treatment of ARDS in patients with COVID-19 prevented the progression of ARDS and patient intubation, reduced respiratory distress and the patient's dependence on oxygen, prevented other complications such as AKI and septic shock in the patient, and reduced mortality and hospital length of stay.

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          Most cited references11

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          Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study

          Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Findings Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3–11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. Interpretation The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1–2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. Funding None.
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            Care for Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19

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              Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases

              Summary WHO interim guidelines recommend offering extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to eligible patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The number of patients with COVID-19 infection who might develop severe ARDS that is refractory to maximal medical management and require this level of support is currently unknown. Available evidence from similar patient populations suggests that carefully selected patients with severe ARDS who do not benefit from conventional treatment might be successfully supported with venovenous ECMO. The need for ECMO is relatively low and its use is mostly restricted to specialised centres globally. Providing complex therapies such as ECMO during outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases has unique challenges. Careful planning, judicious resource allocation, and training of personnel to provide complex therapeutic interventions while adhering to strict infection control measures are all crucial components of an ECMO action plan. ECMO can be initiated in specialist centres, or patients can receive ECMO during transportation from a centre that is not specialised for this procedure to an expert ECMO centre. Ensuring that systems enable safe and coordinated movement of critically ill patients, staff, and equipment is important to improve ECMO access. ECMO preparedness for the COVID-19 pandemic is important in view of the high transmission rate of the virus and respiratory-related mortality.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                26 June 2020
                : 1-4
                [1] aDepartment of Critical Care Nursing & Management, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [2] bSchool of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
                [3] cDepartment of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padova, Padova, Italy
                [4] dDivision of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza (IRRIV), San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
                [5] eDepartment of Adults Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
                [6] fDepartment of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
                [7] gAnesthesiologist, Qom Kamkar Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
                [8] hDepartment of Intensive Care Unit, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                *Mohamad Golitaleb, Department of Critical Care Nursing, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Sardasht Street, Arak 3848176941 (Iran), m.golitaleb@ 123456arakmu.ac.ir
                Copyright © 2020 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                : 8 April 2020
                : 3 June 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 10, Pages: 4
                Case Report

                hemoperfusion,cytokine,continuous renal replacement therapy,covid-19,acute respiratory distress syndrome


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