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      Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Collembola: Phylogeny, Dating and Gene Order

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          Abstract

          Collembola (springtails) are an early diverging class of apterygotes, and mark the first substantial radiation of hexapods on land. Despite extensive work, the relationships between major collembolan lineages are still debated and, apart from the Early Devonian fossil Rhyniella praecursor, which demonstrates their antiquity, the time frame of springtail evolution is unknown. In this study, we sequence two new mitochondrial genomes and reanalyze all known Collembola mt-genomes, including selected metagenomic data, to produce an improved phylogenetic hypothesis for the group, develop a tentative time frame for their differentiation, and provide a comprehensive overview of gene order diversity. Our analyses support most taxonomically recognized entities. We find support for an Entomobryomorpha + Symphypleona clade, while the position of Neelipleona could not be assessed with confidence. A Silurian time frame for their basal diversification is recovered, with an indication that divergence times may be fairly old overall. The distribution of mitochondrial gene order indicates the pancrustacean arrangement as plesiomorphic and dominant in the group, with the exception of the family Onychiuridae. We distinguished multiple instances of different arrangements in individual genomes or small clusters. We further discuss the opportunities and drawbacks associated with the inclusion of metagenomic data in a classic study on mitochondrial genome diversity.

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          RevTrans: Multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences.

          The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, protein alignments also benefit from the information that is implicit in empirical substitution matrices such as BLOSUM-62. Taken together with the generally higher rate of synonymous mutations over non-synonymous ones, this means that the phylogenetic signal disappears much more rapidly from DNA sequences than from the encoded proteins. It is therefore preferable to align coding DNA at the amino acid level and it is for this purpose we have constructed the program RevTrans. RevTrans constructs a multiple DNA alignment by: (i) translating the DNA; (ii) aligning the resulting peptide sequences; and (iii) building a multiple DNA alignment by 'reverse translation' of the aligned protein sequences. In the resulting DNA alignment, gaps occur in groups of three corresponding to entire codons, and analogous codon positions are therefore always lined up. These features are useful when constructing multiple DNA alignments for phylogenetic analysis. RevTrans also accepts user-provided protein alignments for greater control of the alignment process. The RevTrans web server is freely available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/RevTrans/.
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            Gene translocation links insects and crustaceans.

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              Big trees from little genomes: mitochondrial gene order as a phylogenetic tool.

              Gene arrangement comparisons are a powerful tool for phylogenetic studies, especially those focused on ancient relationships. Recent reports using metazoan mitochondrial genomes address evolutionary relationships as well as rates and mechanisms of rearrangement. Mitochondrial systems serve as a model for larger-scale comparisons of whole organismal genomes and a stimulus for developing methods for reconstructing the patterns of rearrangement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                DIVEC6
                Diversity
                Diversity
                MDPI AG
                1424-2818
                September 2019
                September 17 2019
                : 11
                : 9
                : 169
                Article
                10.3390/d11090169
                © 2019
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://www.mdpi.com/1424-2818/11/9/169

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