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      Soil Microbial Community and Enzymatic Activity of Grasslands under Different Use Practices: A Review

      , ,
      Agronomy
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          The usage of grassland significantly affects the microbial and biochemical parameters of soil epipedons. The use of grasslands (by mowing, grazing, and mowing and grazing) affects the dominance of bacteria in abundance relative to fungal populations. This was particularly noticeable when manual mowing was applied. In general, the highest number of microorganisms occurred during spring and summer, which should be associated with the intensity of growth of root systems of grass vegetation. It was noted that the grazing system caused an increase in the enzymatic activity of urease and slightly less dehydrogenases and acid and alkaline phosphatase. Therefore, microbial abundance and enzymatic activity are considered as indicator parameters to evaluate the biological soil environment. They are highly probable estimates of soil fertility and ecosystem biodiversity.

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          Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

          Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.
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            Effects of grazing on grassland soil carbon: a global review.

            Soils of grasslands represent a large potential reservoir for storing CO2 , but this potential likely depends on how grasslands are managed for large mammal grazing. Previous studies found both strong positive and negative grazing effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) but explanations for this variation are poorly developed. Expanding on previous reviews, we performed a multifactorial meta-analysis of grazer effects on SOC density on 47 independent experimental contrasts from 17 studies. We explicitly tested hypotheses that grazer effects would shift from negative to positive with decreasing precipitation, increasing fineness of soil texture, transition from dominant grass species with C3 to C4 photosynthesis, and decreasing grazing intensity, after controlling for study duration and sampling depth. The six variables of soil texture, precipitation, grass type, grazing intensity, study duration, and sampling depth explained 85% of a large variation (±150 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ) in grazing effects, and the best model included significant interactions between precipitation and soil texture (P = 0.002), grass type, and grazing intensity (P = 0.012), and study duration and soil sampling depth (P = 0.020). Specifically, an increase in mean annual precipitation of 600 mm resulted in a 24% decrease in grazer effect size on finer textured soils, while on sandy soils the same increase in precipitation produced a 22% increase in grazer effect on SOC. Increasing grazing intensity increased SOC by 6-7% on C4 -dominated and C4 -C3 mixed grasslands, but decreased SOC by an average 18% in C3 -dominated grasslands. We discovered these patterns despite a lack of studies in natural, wildlife-dominated ecosystems, and tropical grasslands. Our results, which suggest a future focus on why C3 vs. C4 -dominated grasslands differ so strongly in their response of SOC to grazing, show that grazer effects on SOC are highly context-specific and imply that grazers in different regions might be managed differently to help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Actinomycetes benefaction role in soil and plant health.

              Actinomycetes are aerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the order actinomycetales characterized with substrate and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil and are responsible for characteristically "earthy" smell of freshly turned healthy soil. They play major roles in the cycling of organic matter; inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere and decompose complex mixtures of polymer in dead plant, animal and fungal material results in production of many extracellular enzymes which are conductive to crop production. The major contribution in biological buffering of soils, biological control of soil environments by nitrogen fixation and degradation of high molecular weight compounds like hydrocarbons in the polluted soils are remarkable characteristics of actinomycetes. Besides this, they are known to improve the availability of nutrients, minerals, enhance the production of metabolites and promote plant growth regulators. Furthermore, actinobacteria do not contaminate the environment instead, they help sustainably in improving soil health by formation and stabilization of compost piles, formation of stable humus and combine with other soil microorganisms in breaking down the tough plant residues such as cellulose and animal residues to maintain the biotic equilibrium of soil by cooperating with nutrient cycling.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ABSGGL
                Agronomy
                Agronomy
                MDPI AG
                2073-4395
                May 2022
                May 08 2022
                : 12
                : 5
                : 1136
                Article
                10.3390/agronomy12051136
                d5c76990-6af7-4b49-a45c-dc513367f883
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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