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      The implementation of an analgesia-based sedation protocol reduced deep sedation and proved to be safe and feasible in patients on mechanical ventilation Translated title: Implantação de protocolo de redução de sedação profunda baseado em analgesia comprovadamente seguro e factível em pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Deep sedation in critically ill patients is associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and a prolonged length of stay in the intensive care unit. Several protocols have been used to improve these outcomes. We implement and evaluate an analgesia-based, goal-directed, nurse-driven sedation protocol used to treat critically ill patients who receive mechanical ventilation.

          Methods

          We performed a prospective, two-phase (before-after), non-randomized multicenter study that involved 13 intensive care units in Chile. After an observational phase (observational group, n=155), we designed, implemented and evaluated an analgesia-based, goal-directed, nurse-driven sedation protocol (intervention group, n=132) to treat patients who required mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. The primary outcome was to achieve ventilator-free days by day 28.

          Results

          The proportion of patients in deep sedation or in a coma decreased from 55.2% to 44.0% in the interventional group. Agitation did not change between the periods and remained approximately 7%. Ventilator-free days to day 28, length of stay in the intensive care unit and mortality were similar in both groups. At one year, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors were similar in both groups.

          Conclusions

          We designed and implemented an analgesia-based, goal-directed, nurse-driven sedation protocol in Chile. Although there was no improvement in major outcomes, we observed that the present protocol was safe and feasible and that it resulted in decreased periods of deep sedation without increasing agitation.

          Translated abstract

          Introdução

          A sedação profunda em pacientes gravemente enfermos se associa a uma maior duração da ventilação mecânica e à permanência mais longa na unidade de terapia intensiva. Diversos protocolos foram utilizados para melhorar esses desfechos. Implantamos e avaliamos um protocolo de sedação baseado em analgesia, direcionado por objetivos e cuidado por enfermeiros, em pacientes gravemente enfermos submetidos à ventilação mecânica.

          Métodos

          Realizamos um estudo multicêntrico prospectivo em duas fases (antes e depois), que envolveu 13 unidades de terapia intensiva localizadas no Chile. Após uma fase observacional (grupo observacional, N=155), delineamos, implantamos e avaliamos um protocolo de sedação cuidado por enfermeiros, direcionado por objetivos (grupo de intervenção, N=132) para tratar pacientes que necessitaram de ventilação mecânica por mais do que 48 horas. O parâmetro primário de avaliação foi a obtenção de dias livres de ventilador até o dia 28.

          Resultados

          No grupo de intervenção, a proporção de pacientes com sedação profunda ou coma diminuiu de 55,2 para 44,0%. A incidência de agitação não se alterou entre os períodos, permanecendo em cerca de 7%. Dias livres de ventilador até o dia 28, permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade foram similares em ambos os grupos. Após 1 ano, a presença de sintomas de desordem de estresse pós-traumático nos sobreviventes foi similar entre os grupos.

          Conclusões

          Delineamos e implantamos no Chile um protocolo de sedação baseado em analgesia, direcionado por objetivos e cuidado por enfermeiros. Embora não se tenha observado melhora nos principais desfechos, observamos que o presente protocolo foi seguro e factível, e que resultou em períodos mais curtos de sedação profunda, sem aumento da agitação.

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          Most cited references75

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          Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult

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            Impact of systematic evaluation of pain and agitation in an intensive care unit.

            To measure the impact of implementation of the systematic evaluation of pain and agitation by nurses using the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS), the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) associated with medical staff education in analgesia and sedation management in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Two-phase, prospective, controlled study. Twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a university hospital. Consecutive patients staying >24 hrs in ICU. BPS, NRS, and RASS were measured twice daily, at rest, by independent observers during 21 wks (control group) and after 4 wks of training, by nurses during 29 wks (intervention group). In the intervention group, the treating physician was alerted in case of pain defined by BPS>5 or NRS>3 or in case of agitation defined by RASS>1. A total of 230 patients were included (control group, n=100; intervention group, n=130). Baseline characteristics were not significantly different. The incidence of pain and agitation decreased significantly in the intervention group: 63% vs. 42% (p=.002) and 29% vs. 12% (p=.002), respectively. Rate of severe pain and agitation events defined by NRS>6 and RASS>2, respectively, also decreased significantly. There were significantly more therapeutic changes in the intervention group in the way of an escalation but also in the way of a de-escalation for analgesic and psychoactive drugs. Compared with the control group, there was a marked decrease in the duration of mechanical ventilation (120 [interquartile range 48-312] vs. 65 (24-192) hrs, p=.01) and nosocomial infections rate (17% vs. 8%, p<.05) in the intervention group. There was no significant difference in median length of stay (9 [4, 15] vs. 7 [4, 13] days) and mortality in ICU (12 vs. 15%). Systematic evaluation of pain and agitation, and analgesics and sedatives need was associated with a decrease in incidence of pain and agitation, duration of mechanical ventilation and nosocomial infections.
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              Sensitivity and specificity of a screening test to document traumatic experiences and to diagnose post-traumatic stress disorder in ARDS patients after intensive care treatment.

              Many survivors of critical illness and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment have traumatic memories such as nightmares, panic or pain which can be associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to simplify the rapid and early detection of PTSD in such patients, we modified an existing questionnaire for diagnosis of PTSD and validated the instrument in a cohort of ARDS patients after long-term ICU therapy. Follow-up cohort study. The 20-bed ICU of a university teaching hospital. A cohort of 52 long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The questionnaire was administered to the study cohort at two time points 2 years apart. At the second evaluation, the patients underwent a structured interview with two trained psychiatrists to diagnose PTSD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was then estimated and its specificity, sensitivity and optimal decision threshold determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The questionnaire showed a high internal consistency (Crohnbach's alpha = 0.93) and a high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient alpha = 0.89). There was evidence of construct validity by a linear relationship between scores and the number of traumatic memories from the ICU the patients described (Spearman's rho = 0.48, p < 0.01). Criterion validity was demonstrated by ROC curve analyses resulting in a sensitivity of 77.0% and a specificity of 97.5% for the diagnosis of PTSD. The questionnaire was found to be a responsive, valid and reliable instrument to screen survivors of intensive care for PTSD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
                Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
                Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
                Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
                Associação Brasileira de Medicina intensiva
                0103-507X
                1982-4335
                Jul-Sep 2013
                : 25
                : 3
                : 188-196
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile -Santiago, Chile.
                [2 ] Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile - Santiago, Chile.
                [3 ] Grupo Chileno Universitário de Medicina Intensiva - Santiago, Chile.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Guillermo Bugedo, Postal Code: 6510260, PO Box: 114-D - Santiago, Chile. E-mail: gbugedo@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.5935/0103-507X.20130034
                4031854
                24213081
                d5cbd99b-d641-4db5-ab84-92b3e0f1ed20

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 08 July 2013
                : 25 August 2013
                Categories
                Original Article

                analgesia,deep sedation,patient safety,respiration, artificial,clinical protocols,intensive care units

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