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      Mini-Rhexis For White Intumescent Cataracts


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          To compare the intraoperative safety of two techniques of capsulorhexis for intumescent white cataracts: traditional one-stage continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and two-stage continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis.


          This prospective comparative randomized study included two groups: the 1-CCC group (11 patients) received traditional one-stage continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis with 5–6 mm diameter, and the 2-CCC (13 patients) group received a deliberately small continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis that was secondarily enlarged, or a two-stage continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis. Patients were stratified according to cataract subset, which was characterized echographically. Six patients were considered as type 1, fifteen as type 2 and three as type 3. Type 1 included intumescent white cataracts with cortex liquefaction and extensive internal acoustic reflections, type 2 included white cataracts with voluminous nuclei, a small amount of whitish solid cortex, and minimal internal acoustic reflections, and type 3 included white cataracts with fibrous anterior capsules and few internal echo spikes.


          With the one-stage technique, 46.15% of patients had leakage of the liquefied cortex; in addition, the surgeon perceived high intracapsular pressure in 61.53% of cases. Anterior capsule tears occurred in 23.07% of cases, discontinuity of capsulorhexis in 30.79% of cases and no posterior capsular rupture occurred. With the two-stage technique, leakage of the liquefied cortex occurred in 45.45% of cases; additionally, the surgeon perceived high intracapsular pressure in 36.36% of cases. No anterior capsule tears, discontinuity of capsulorhexis or posterior capsular rupture occurred. Considering each cataract subset, there was a higher incidence of leakage for type 2 as compared to types 1 and 3.


          Two-stage continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis helps prevent unexpected radial tears of the initial capsulotomy from high intracapsular pressure, sudden radialization of the CCC and other intraoperative complications due to high intracapsular pressure, thus providing a safe cataract surgery in cases of white cataracts. These findings were supported by ultrasonography.

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          Most cited references53

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          Dispersive-cohesive viscoelastic soft shell technique.

          Based on their physical properties, ophthalmic viscoelastic agents can be divided into 2 groups: higher-viscosity cohesive and lower-viscosity dispersive. Higher-viscosity cohesive agents are best at creating and preserving space, while lower-viscosity dispersive agents are retained better in the anterior chamber and are capable of partitioning spaces. The viscoelastic soft shell technique maximizes the advantages and minimizes the disadvantages of both groups by using dispersive and cohesive agents together in sequence based on the desired surgical goal.
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            Manual small incision cataract surgery in eyes with white cataracts.

            To assess the safety and efficacy of Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (MSICS) in cases of white cataract with the use of trypan blue as an adjunct for performing continuous curvilinear capsulorthexis (CCC). Prospective observational study on 100 consecutive eyes of 100 patients with white cataract who had undergone MSICS with trypan blue assisted CCC. The nucleus was prolapsed into anterior chamber by using a sinskey hook and extracted out of the eye using irrigating vectis. Intraoperative and postoperative findings (according to OCTET classification) as well as postoperative visual outcomes were used as main measures to report the safety and efficacy of the surgery. Of the 100 eyes, 16 had intumescent, 67 had mature and 17 had hypermature cataract. Intraoperatively CCC was incomplete in 4 eyes (4%) and had to be converted to canopener capsulotomy. None of the eyes had posterior capsular rupture or zonular dialysis and no eyes were converted to conventional Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE). Postoperatively, 6 eyes (6%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds and 7 eyes (7%) had corneal oedema with In developing countries like India where phacoemulsification may not be affordable to a majority of those requiring cataract surgery, MSICS proves to be a safe and efficacious alternative for white cataracts especially with the adjunctive use of trypan blue dye.
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              Trypan blue as an adjunct for safe phacoemulsification in eyes with white cataract.

              To assess the feasibility, risks, and postoperative outcomes of phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) implantation in cases of white cataract with the use of trypan blue as an adjunct for performing continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) in the absence of a red reflex. Dr. Agarwal's Eye Hospital, Chennai, India. This prospective study comprised 52 eyes of 52 patients with white cataract that had phacoemulsification through a clear corneal temporal incision with PC IOL implantation. In all the cases, trypan blue was used under air to stain the anterior lens capsule and the karate-chop technique was used to emulsify the nucleus. The mean follow-up was 192.2 days. Trypan blue adequately stained the anterior lens capsule in all cases. The CCC was completed uneventfully in 96.15% eyes; 3.85% of cases had to be converted to a conventional extraction technique because of the loss of the CCC. The mean phacoemulsification time was 2.2 minutes. Intraocular complications included incomplete capsulorhexis (3.85%) and pupillary miosis (3.80%). Postoperatively, 3 eyes (5.77%) had corneal edema (striate keratopathy) and 1 eye (1.9%) had fibrin in the anterior chamber. Five eyes (9.61%) had more than 2+ cells and flare at 2 weeks. All responded well to intensive topical and subconjunctival steroids. There were no cases of endophthalmitis. The mean central endothelial cell loss, measured in 37 eyes, was 8.5%. Of the 4 eyes (7.69%) that had increased intraocular pressure (IOP) postoperatively, all responded well to medications and the IOP was normal by the second postoperative week. Fifty eyes (96.16%) had a final best corrected visual acuity of 20/30 or better. In 2 cases, the final visual acuity was worse than 20/200 because of preexisting posterior segment pathology. Phacoemulsification using trypan blue was safe and effective in managing white cataract and had a high success rate.

                Author and article information

                Clinics (Sao Paulo)
                Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil)
                Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
                April 2009
                : 64
                : 4
                : 309-312
                Ophthalmology Department, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo - São Paulo/SP, Brazil
                Author notes
                Email: marconysanthiago@ 123456hotmail.com , Tel.: 55 11 3069.6000
                Copyright © 2009 Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP
                : 28 October 2008
                : 26 December 2008
                Clinical Sciences

                intumescent, minirhexis, capsulotomy, cataract, capsulorhexis


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