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      Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis of Two Groups of Lymph Nodes, Being Intradermal Tuberculin or Interferon-Gamma Test Positive and Negative, Isolated from Swiss Cattle at Slaughter

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          Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an important zoonotic pathogen with raising global health concerns. In humans, MAH is one of the most widespread non-tuberculous mycobacterial species responsible for lung disease. In animals, MAH is frequently isolated from pigs; however, it is also an opportunistic pathogen for other mammals including cattle. To elucidate the genetic diversity of MAH in cattle, a molecular characterization of isolates ( n = 26) derived from lymph nodes was performed. Fourteen isolates originated from slaughtered cattle with visible altered lymph nodes at meat inspection, whereas 12 isolates were from lymph nodes without any gross pathological changes of healthy slaughtered cattle. Variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis was performed at 20 loci to examine genetic differences of isolates and to compare to previously reported VNTR data of human isolates from different countries. Genetic elements IS901, IS1245, IS1311, LSPA17, ITS1 sequevar, and hsp65 code were determined. Interestingly, two bovine MAH isolates harbored ISMav6 and hsp65 code 15, which so far has only been observed in human isolates. We supposed that VNTR data of Swiss samples would show clustering with European samples. Minimum spanning tree and unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages analyses based on the VNTR data indicated a specific cluster of MAH isolates obtained from lymph nodes without any gross pathological changes of healthy slaughtered cattle. Comparing Swiss isolates with isolates from different other countries, no geographical clustering was observed; however, four Swiss isolates had an identical VNTR profile as human isolates from the Netherlands, the United States, and Japan. These findings indicate a possible public health issue.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Rapid identification of mycobacteria to the species level by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis.

           A Telenti,  F Bally,  M Balz (1993)
          A method for the rapid identification of mycobacteria to the species level was developed on the basis of evaluation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the gene encoding for the 65-kDa protein. The method involves restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products obtained with primers common to all mycobacteria. Using two restriction enzymes, BstEII and HaeIII, medically relevant and other frequent laboratory isolates were differentiated to the species or subspecies level by PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis. PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis was performed on isolates (n = 330) from solid and fluid culture media, including BACTEC, or from frozen and lyophilized stocks. The procedure does not involve hybridization steps or the use of radioactivity and can be completed within 1 working day.
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            Automated high-throughput genotyping for study of global epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units.

            Large-scale genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is especially challenging, as the current typing methods are labor-intensive and the results are difficult to compare among laboratories. Here, automated typing based on variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements named mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) in 12 mammalian minisatellite-like loci of M. tuberculosis is presented. This system combines analysis of multiplex PCRs on a fluorescence-based DNA analyzer with computerized automation of the genotyping. Analysis of a blinded reference set of 90 strains from 38 countries (K. Kremer et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2607-2618, 1999) demonstrated that it is 100% reproducible, sensitive, and specific for M. tuberculosis complex isolates, a performance that has not been achieved by any other typing method tested in the same conditions. MIRU-VNTRs can be used for analysis of the global genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis complex strains at different levels of evolutionary divergence. To fully exploit the portability of this typing system, a website was set up for the analysis of M. tuberculosis MIRU-VNTR genotypes via the Internet. This opens the way for global epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis and should lead to novel insights into the evolutionary and population genetics of this major pathogen.
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              rpoB-based identification of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria.

              Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are increasingly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Their accurate identification remains problematic because classification is labor intensive work and because new taxa are not often incorporated into classification databases. Also, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis underestimates RGM diversity and does not distinguish between all taxa. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the rpoB gene, which encodes the bacterial beta subunit of the RNA polymerase, for 20 RGM type strains. After using in-house software which analyzes and graphically represents variability stretches of 60 bp along the nucleotide sequence, our analysis focused on a 723-bp variable region exhibiting 83.9 to 97% interspecies similarity and 0 to 1.7% intraspecific divergence. Primer pair Myco-F-Myco-R was designed as a tool for both PCR amplification and sequencing of this region for molecular identification of RGM. This tool was used for identification of 63 RGM clinical isolates previously identified at the species level on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of 63 clinical isolates, 59 (94%) exhibited 3% partial rpoB gene sequence divergence from the corresponding type strain; they belonged to three taxa related to M. mucogenicum, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium porcinum. For M. abscessus and M. mucogenicum, this partial sequence yielded a high genetic heterogeneity within the clinical isolates. We conclude that molecular identification by analysis of the 723-bp rpoB sequence is a rapid and accurate tool for identification of RGM.

                Author and article information

                Front Vet Sci
                Front Vet Sci
                Front. Vet. Sci.
                Frontiers in Veterinary Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                05 March 2018
                : 5
                1Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland
                2Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Subhash Verma, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, India

                Reviewed by: Sunil Kumar Mor, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, United States; Kaori Sakamoto, University of Georgia, United States

                *Correspondence: Simone Scherrer, simone.scherrer@

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Veterinary Infectious Diseases, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science

                Copyright © 2018 Scherrer, Landolt, Carroli and Stephan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 9, Words: 6457
                Veterinary Science
                Original Research


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