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      Relationship between meiotic behaviour and fertility in backcross-1 derivatives of the [( Gossypium hirsutum × G. thurberi ) 2 × G. longicalyx ] trispecies hybrid

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          Wild cotton species are an important source of desirable genes for genetic improvement of cultivated cotton Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, 1763. For the success of such an improvement, chromosome pairings and recombinations in hybrids are fundamental. The wild African species G. longicalyx Hutchinson & Lee, 1958 could be used as donor of the desirable trait of fiber fineness. Twelve BC1 plants obtained from the backcrossing of [( G. hirsutum × G. thurberi Todaro, 1877) 2 × G. longicalyx ] (A hD hD 1F 1, 2n = 4x = 52) trispecies hybrid (HTL) by G. hirsutum (cv. C2) (A hA hD hD h, 2n = 4x = 52) were investigated for meiotic behaviour and plant fertility. Their chromosome associations varied as follows: (2.5 to 11.5) I + (17 to 22) II + (0.31 to 1.93) III + (0.09 to 1.93) IV + (0 to 0.07) V + (0 to 0.14) VI. Their pollen fertility ranged from 4.67 to 32.10 %. Only four BC1 plants produced a few seeds through self-pollination. The remaining BC1 were totally self-sterile and usually presented the highest number of univalents. All BC1 materials produced BC2 seeds (0.44 to 6.50 seeds per backcross) with the number of seeds negatively correlated with the number of univalents (R 2 = 0.45, P < 0.05). Most BC1 plants gave significantly finer fiber compared to the cultivated G. hirsutum . SSR markers showed a segregation of wild alleles among the backcross derivatives and Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) revealed presence of entire chromosomes of G. longicalyx as well as recombinant chromosomes in the backcross derivatives. The significance and details of these results are presented and the prospects of successfully exploiting these plant materials are discussed.

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          A combined RFLP-SSR-AFLP map of tetraploid cotton based on a Gossypium hirsutum x Gossypium barbadense backcross population.

          An interspecific Gossypium hirsutum x Gossypium barbadense backcross population of 75 BC1 plants was evaluated for 1014 markers. The map consists of 888 loci, including 465 AFLPs, 229 SSRs, 192 RFLPs, and 2 morphological markers, ordered in 37 linkage groups that represent most if not all of the 26 chromosomes, altogether spanning 4400 cM. Loci were not evenly distributed over linkage groups, and 18 of the 26 long groups had a single dense region. This paper proposes a partially revised list of the 13 pairs of homoeologous A/D chromosomes of the 2n = 4x = 52 tetraploid cotton genome. The major revisions, which involve the c3-c17, c4-c22, c5-D08, and c10-c20 homoeologous pairs, are based on the mapping of 68 SSR and RFLP loci with a known chromosome assignment, as well as on comparative alignments with previously published G. hirsutum x G. barbadense maps. The overall congruency in the locus orders and distances of common SSR and RFLP loci in these maps allows for an estimation of the consensus length that reaches a minimum of 5500 cM, and is encouraging for future efforts aimed at developing an integrated map of cultivated cotton. The present map also provides a firm framework for precision mapping of Mendelian components of quantitative traits in cotton
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            Rapid diversification of the cotton genus (Gossypium: Malvaceae) revealed by analysis of sixteen nuclear and chloroplast genes.

            Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have failed to resolve the branching order among the major cotton (Gossypium) lineages, and it has been unclear whether this reflects actual history (rapid radiation) or sampling properties of the genes evaluated. In this paper, we reconsider the phylogenetic relationships of diploid cotton genome groups using DNA sequences from 11 single-copy nuclear loci (10 293 base pairs [bp]), nuclear ribosomal DNA (695 bp), and four chloroplast loci (7370 bp). Results from individual loci and combined nuclear and chloroplast DNA partitions reveal that the cotton genome groups radiated in rapid succession following the formation of the genus. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear synonymous sites shows that this radiation occurred within a time span equivalent to 17% of the time since the separation of Gossypium from its nearest extant relatives in the genera Kokia and Gossypioides. Chloroplast and nuclear phylogenies differ significantly with respect to resolution of the basal divergence in the genus and to interrelationships among African cottons. This incongruence is due to limited character evolution in cpDNA and either previously unsuspected hybridization or unreliable phylogenetic performance of the cpDNA characters. This study highlights the necessity of using multiple, independent data sets for resolving phylogenetic relationships of rapidly diverged lineages.
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              Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics

              Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement.

                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                28 January 2020
                : 14
                : 1
                : 75-95
                [1 ] Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Liège University, Tropical agriculture Unit, 2 passage des Déportés, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium Liège University Gembloux Belgium
                [2 ] Jean Lorougnon Guédé University, Agroforestry Unit, BP 150, Cote D’ivoire Jean Lorougnon Guédé University Daloa Cote d'Ivoire
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: N’guessan Olivier Konan ( nguessanolivier@ )

                Academic editor: E. Mikhailova

                N’guessan Olivier Konan, Guy Mergeai

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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