Wild cotton species are an important source of desirable genes for genetic improvement of cultivated cotton Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, 1763. For the success of such an improvement, chromosome pairings and recombinations in hybrids are fundamental. The wild African species G. longicalyx Hutchinson & Lee, 1958 could be used as donor of the desirable trait of fiber fineness. Twelve BC1 plants obtained from the backcrossing of [( G. hirsutum × G. thurberi Todaro, 1877) 2 × G. longicalyx ] (A hD hD 1F 1, 2n = 4x = 52) trispecies hybrid (HTL) by G. hirsutum (cv. C2) (A hA hD hD h, 2n = 4x = 52) were investigated for meiotic behaviour and plant fertility. Their chromosome associations varied as follows: (2.5 to 11.5) I + (17 to 22) II + (0.31 to 1.93) III + (0.09 to 1.93) IV + (0 to 0.07) V + (0 to 0.14) VI. Their pollen fertility ranged from 4.67 to 32.10 %. Only four BC1 plants produced a few seeds through self-pollination. The remaining BC1 were totally self-sterile and usually presented the highest number of univalents. All BC1 materials produced BC2 seeds (0.44 to 6.50 seeds per backcross) with the number of seeds negatively correlated with the number of univalents (R 2 = 0.45, P < 0.05). Most BC1 plants gave significantly finer fiber compared to the cultivated G. hirsutum . SSR markers showed a segregation of wild alleles among the backcross derivatives and Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) revealed presence of entire chromosomes of G. longicalyx as well as recombinant chromosomes in the backcross derivatives. The significance and details of these results are presented and the prospects of successfully exploiting these plant materials are discussed.