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      Longitudinal analysis of sleep in relation to BMI and body fat in children: the FLAME study

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          Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children.

          Design Longitudinal study with repeated annual measurements.

          Setting Dunedin, New Zealand.

          Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7.

          Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured with bioelectrical impedance; dual energy x ray absorptiometry; physical activity and sleep duration measured with accelerometry; dietary intake (fruit and vegetables, non-core foods), television viewing, and family factors (maternal BMI and education, birth weight, smoking during pregnancy) measured with questionnaire.

          Results After adjustment for multiple confounders, each additional hour of sleep at ages 3-5 was associated with a reduction in BMI of 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.96) and a reduced risk of being overweight (BMI ≥85th centile) of 0.39 (0.24 to 0.63) at age 7. Further adjustment for BMI at age 3 strengthened these relations. These differences in BMI were explained by differences in fat mass index (−0.43, −0.82 to −0.03) more than by differences in fat free mass index (−0.21, −0.41 to −0.00).

          Conclusions Young children who do not get enough sleep are at increased risk of becoming overweight, even after adjustment for initial weight status and multiple confounding factors. This weight gain is a result of increased fat deposition in both sexes rather than additional accumulation of fat free mass.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study.

          To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. Prospective cohort study. Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related risk factors for obesity. Obesity at age 7 years, defined as a body mass index (3) 95th centile relative to reference data for the UK population in 1990. Eight of 25 putative risk factors were associated with a risk of obesity in the final models: parental obesity (both parents: adjusted odds ratio, 10.44, 95% confidence interval 5.11 to 21.32), very early (by 43 months) body mass index or adiposity rebound (15.00, 5.32 to 42.30), more than eight hours spent watching television per week at age 3 years (1.55, 1.13 to 2.12), catch-up growth (2.60, 1.09 to 6.16), standard deviation score for weight at age 8 months (3.13, 1.43 to 6.85) and 18 months (2.65, 1.25 to 5.59); weight gain in first year (1.06, 1.02 to 1.10 per 100 g increase); birth weight, per 100 g (1.05, 1.03 to 1.07); and short (< 10.5 hours) sleep duration at age 3 years (1.45, 1.10 to 1.89). Eight factors in early life are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood.
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            2000 CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development.

            This report provides detailed information on how the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts for the United States were developed, expanding upon the report that accompanied the initial release of the charts in 2000. The growth charts were developed with data from five national health examination surveys and limited supplemental data. Smoothed percentile curves were developed in two stages. In the first stage, selected empirical percentiles were smoothed with a variety of parametric and nonparametric procedures. In the second stage, parameters were created to obtain the final curves, additional percentiles and z-scores. The revised charts were evaluated using statistical and graphical measures. The 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts were revised for infants (birth to 36 months) and older children (2 to 20 years). New body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) charts were created. Use of national data improved the transition from the infant charts to those for older children. The evaluation of the charts found no large or systematic differences between the smoothed percentiles and the empirical data. The 2000 CDC growth charts were developed with improved data and statistical procedures. Health care providers now have an instrument for growth screening that better represents the racial-ethnic diversity and combination of breast- and formula-feeding in the United States. It is recommended that these charts replace the 1977 NCHS charts when assessing the size and growth patterns of infants, children, and adolescents.
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              Is sleep duration associated with childhood obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis.


                Author and article information

                Role: doctoral student
                Role: professor, head of department
                Role: research associate professor, biostatistician
                Role: Karitane research associate professor in early childhood obesity
                BMJ : British Medical Journal
                BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
                26 May 2011
                : 342
                [1 ]Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
                [2 ]Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago
                [3 ]Edgar National Centre for Diabetes and Obesity Research, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Otago
                Author notes
                Correspondence: R Taylor, Department of Human Nutrition, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand rachael.taylor@ 123456otago.ac.nz
                © Carter et al 2011

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ and http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/legalcode.

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