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      Spatial representation in the hippocampal formation: a history

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      Nature Neuroscience
      Springer Nature

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          Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex.

          The ability to find one's way depends on neural algorithms that integrate information about place, distance and direction, but the implementation of these operations in cortical microcircuits is poorly understood. Here we show that the dorsocaudal medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) contains a directionally oriented, topographically organized neural map of the spatial environment. Its key unit is the 'grid cell', which is activated whenever the animal's position coincides with any vertex of a regular grid of equilateral triangles spanning the surface of the environment. Grids of neighbouring cells share a common orientation and spacing, but their vertex locations (their phases) differ. The spacing and size of individual fields increase from dorsal to ventral dMEC. The map is anchored to external landmarks, but persists in their absence, suggesting that grid cells may be part of a generalized, path-integration-based map of the spatial environment.
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            Theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

            Theta oscillations represent the "on-line" state of the hippocampus. The extracellular currents underlying theta waves are generated mainly by the entorhinal input, CA3 (Schaffer) collaterals, and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents in pyramidal cell dendrites. The rhythm is believed to be critical for temporal coding/decoding of active neuronal ensembles and the modification of synaptic weights. Nevertheless, numerous critical issues regarding both the generation of theta oscillations and their functional significance remain challenges for future research.
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              Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Neuroscience
                Nat Neurosci
                Springer Nature
                1097-6256
                1546-1726
                October 26 2017
                October 26 2017
                : 20
                : 11
                : 1448-1464
                Article
                10.1038/nn.4653
                29073644
                d5ee32e7-1fd3-4d1e-bba7-0961dd9bb8fe
                © 2017
                History
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nn.4653

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