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      Preparation of Synthetic Zeolites from Coal Fly Ash by Hydrothermal Synthesis

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          Abstract

          Large amounts of coal combustion products (as solid products of thermal power plants) with different chemical and physical properties cause serious environmental problems. Even though coal fly ash is a coal combustion product, it has a wide range of applications (e.g., in construction, metallurgy, chemical production, reclamation etc.). One of its potential uses is in zeolitization to obtain a higher added value of the product. The aim of this paper is to produce a material with sufficient textural properties used, for example, for environmental purposes (an adsorbent) and/or storage material. In practice, the coal fly ash (No. 1 and No. 2) from Czech power plants was firstly characterized in detail (X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), particle size measurement, and textural analysis), and then it was hydrothermally treated to synthetize zeolites. Different concentrations of NaOH, LiCl, Al 2O 3, and aqueous glass; different temperature effects (90–120 °C); and different process lengths (6–48 h) were studied. Furthermore, most of the experiments were supplemented with a crystallization phase that was run for 16 h at 50 °C. After qualitative product analysis (SEM-EDX, XRD, and textural analytics), quantitative XRD evaluation with an internal standard was used for zeolitization process evaluation. Sodalite (SOD), phillipsite (PHI), chabazite (CHA), faujasite-Na (FAU-Na), and faujasite-Ca (FAU-Ca) were obtained as the zeolite phases. The content of these zeolite phases ranged from 2.09 to 43.79%. The best conditions for the zeolite phase formation were as follows: 4 M NaOH, 4 mL 10% LiCl, liquid/solid ratio of 30:1, silica/alumina ratio change from 2:1 to 1:1, temperature of 120 °C, process time of 24 h, and a crystallization phase for 16 h at 50 °C.

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          Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers

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            Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (Provisional)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                07 March 2021
                March 2021
                : 14
                : 5
                : 1267
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 17 listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic; vladimir.cablik@ 123456vsb.cz
                [2 ]Institute of Geotechnics of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 45, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia; hredzak@ 123456saske.sk (S.H.); zubant@ 123456saske.sk (A.Z.); matik@ 123456saske.sk (M.M.)
                [3 ]State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr Bratislava, Regional Centre Košice, Jesenského 8, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia; zuzana.dankova@ 123456geology.sk
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: langauer@ 123456seznam.cz
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9239-4892
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8081-2348
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2176-0549
                Article
                materials-14-01267
                10.3390/ma14051267
                7962127
                d5f64cdb-c194-4ab3-86e9-28c4d5ecce94
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 03 February 2021
                : 03 March 2021
                Categories
                Article

                coal fly ash,zeolite,hydrothermal synthesis,sodalite,surface,xrd,sem

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